Political experts and media outlets determined Sen. Susan Collins (R) as one of the most essential Republican votes essential for Kavanaugh"s confirmation.

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<6> Collins supported legalized abortion and also said she would not vote for a nominee to the U.S. Can be fried Court that would overturn Roe v. Wade.<7>

September 7, 2018: "I understand it’s frustrating to the press, yet until I end up my evaluation I’m going come defer mine decision-making. I have actually been affiliated in check hearings for 6 Supreme Court justices. Ns have always waited until hearings space done and until I have reviewed the paperwork and also cases."<12>

August 21, 2018: after ~ Collins met v Kavanaugh, she said, "We talked about whether he thought about Roe come be settled law...He said that the agreed through what justice Roberts said at his nomination hearing, in i m sorry he said it was settled law. We had actually a very good, thorough discussion."<13>

July 25, 2018: "There is a rigorous project underway right now in Maine. There’s choose a $3 million media buy, i beg your pardon is vast in my state. So you can’t revolve on the tv or the radio or walk on the internet without see ads. However those type of things room not walking to have actually an affect on my vote."<14>

July 20, 2018: "I take this responsibility an extremely seriously. I am amazing that several of my partner on both political parties of the aisle that took a place on the nominee prior to he was even nominated before we even knew his identity. That"s not the technique I am taking. I am law a thorough review of the extensive record trail."<15>

July 10, 2018: "It will certainly be very daunting for anyone come argue that he’s no qualified because that the job. He clearly is qualified because that the job. Yet there room other concerns involving judicial temperament and his political, or rather, his judicial philosophy that additionally will play into my decision."<16>

July 1, 2018: "A candidate that this crucial position that would overturn Roe v. Wade would not be acceptable to me, since that would show an activist agenda that i don’t want to view a judge have."<17>

Joe Donnelly (D)


Sen. Jeff Flake (R-AZ) was a member the the Senate Judiciary Committee who did not run because that re-election in 2018. Flake express concerns about holding a committee poll on Kavanaugh"s nomination on September 20 after Dr. Christine Blasey Ford come forward speak Kavanaugh had actually sexually attacked her in the 1980"s. After hearings v Kavanaugh and also Dr. Ford were held on September 27, Flake claimed that he would vote to check Kavanaugh. In his vote to introduce Kavanaugh"s nomination to the full Senate because that a vote, Flake said he was voting "yes" as lengthy as an FBI report was carried out on Kavanaugh.

Heidi Heitkamp (D)


Sen. Heidi Heitkamp (D) of phibìc Dakota voted to confirm Neil Gorsuch in 2017, in addition to two other autonomous senators. Heitkamp faced re-election in 2018. Her state was targeted by the Judicial situation Network with ad buys sustaining the confirmation of Kavanaugh.

September 28, 2018: Heitkamp stated she hadn"t make her last decision around Kavanaugh. "I think this idea that there’s only one human being that can do this job, we all need to recalibrate," she said.<29>

August 15, 2018 (After meeting through Kavanaugh): "Today, judge Kavanuagh and also I had a thorough and also substantive discussion about the prominence of the ascendancy of law, precedent, honest standards at the U.S. Supreme Court, reaching more consensus ~ above the Court, and also avoiding activism indigenous the bench so the Court is shielded indigenous politics. I learned much more about his judicial record and temperament – i beg your pardon will likewise hopefully come to be clearer during his Senate hearing in the Senate Judiciary Committee. Ns reinforced come him how an important it is that anyone that serves ~ above the U.S. Supreme Court is pragmatic, compassionate, committed to justice, and impartial so that everyone prior to the Court it s okay a fair hearing. I also talked around the need to fully understand Indian law and also treaties, i m sorry are an especially important because that states favor North Dakota."<30>

August 6, 2018: "I don"t like making these decisions till I check out the actual job interview, which is the committee hearings. As quickly as lock schedule the committee hearings and also we"re able to watch the committee hearings, climate that"ll be the last piece of info that I should make a decision."<31>

August 1, 2018: "I’ll accomplish with judge Kavanaugh on august 15 to sit down through him and also learn much more about him, his judicial record, and his judicial temperament. I’ll likewise need to see his hearing before the Senate Judiciary Committee as component of a thorough and also exhaustive testimonial – which is what every senator have to do when evaluating a lifetime appointment come the can be fried Court."<32>

July 9, 2018: "All that transforms for me is that we now have a nominee. As I stressed to the president during our meeting 2 weeks ago, one of the most necessary jobs of any kind of U.S. Councilor is to totally vet any type of nominee to offer on the supreme Court, the highest court in ours land. Now I"ll get to work-related to thoroughly review and also vet his document to carry out advice and consent because that filling this vacancy, i m sorry is part of my constitution duty. Ns take this job extremely seriously and also I mean the nominee to meet with senators, have actually a hearing, and also receive a substantial review of his record. Together an attorney and also former attorney general, I know the prestige of this place for ours judicial system and our country. I have no doubt that plenty of members that Congress and also outside teams will announce just how they was standing on the nominee prior to doing their due diligence and also instead simply take a partisan stance-but that isn"t how I work. One exhaustive and fair process took location for justice Gorsuch, that I supported, and it should and also must take place again now. And also that"s the type of leadership North Dakotans intend from your senators."<33>

Doug Jones (D)

Sen. Doug Jones (D) the Alabama was targeted by several satellite teams in the month leading approximately Kavanaugh"s confirmation hearings. The NRA aired ads in Alabama urging voter to encourage Jones to vote for Kavanaugh"s confirmation. His state was also targeted through Americans because that Prosperity and also the Judicial dilemm Network. Jones joined several Democrats in calling because that Kavanaugh"s confirmation hearings come be delayed after chairman Trump"s former campaign chairman was uncovered guilty on charges including tax fraud and Trump"s former lawyer Michael Cohen pleaded guilty to campaign finance violations.

September 27, 2018: "Dr. Ford was credible and also courageous and I am concerned about the article our vote will be sending out to our sons and daughters, and also victims of sex-related assault. I will be voting no."<34>

August 22, 2018: "I think we have to push a pause switch right now and let this beat out simply a little bit. And you pair with the reality that we haven"t obtained the full collection of documents, ns think it only makes sense."<35>

Joe Manchin (D)

Sen. Joe Manchin (D) met with Kavanaugh on July 30. He came to be the an initial Democratic senator come schedule a meeting with the judge. Manchin ran because that re-election in 2018.

July 30, 2018: (After meeting v Kavanaugh) "Today, referee Kavanaugh and I had a fertile meeting and also talked around his experience, record and a selection of issues that will impact West Virginians, consisting of his views on healthcare."<37>

July 25, 2018: (When asked around how other autonomous senators won"t sit down v Kavanaugh) "That’s something the I would certainly absolutely rail against. That’s not a criterion that should be followed."<38>

July 23, 2018: "I take it my obligation to advise and also consent ~ above a nominee come the supreme Court really seriously. As I did once Merrick Garland and Neil Gorsuch were nominated, i am examining Judge Kavanaugh"s record, legitimate qualifications, judicial philosophy and particularly, his see on healthcare. I encourage West Virginians to review his qualifications themselves and also share your thoughts and also concerns with me."<39>

July 9, 2018: "As the Senator native West Virginia, I have a constitutional obligation to advise and consent top top a nominee to fill supreme Court vacancies and also I take it that obligation seriously. Just as ns did as soon as Merrick Garland and Neil Gorsuch were nominated, I will evaluate referee Kavanaugh’s record, legitimate qualifications, righteousness philosophy and particularly, his see on healthcare. The can be fried Court will ultimately decide if almost 800,000 West Virginians v pre-existing conditions will shed their healthcare. This decision will certainly directly influence almost 40% of my state, so I’m very interested in his place on protecting West Virginians through pre-existing conditions. Together I have always said, I believe the Senate should hold committee hearings; Senators should accomplish with him, us should conflict his qualifications ~ above the Senate floor and cast whatever vote we think he deserves. I look forward to meeting v Judge Kavanaugh, examining his rulings and making a decision of whether to carry out my consent."<40>

Lisa Murkowski (R)

Political experts and media outlets identified Sen. Lisa Murkowski (R) as among the most essential Republican votes required for Kavanaugh"s confirmation. She sustained legal access to abortion and said this was a reason she voted against President Trump"s repeal of the Affordable treatment Act in 2017. Murkowski claimed Roe v. Wade would certainly be a far-reaching factor in her consideration of Trump"s nominee yet stressed it would certainly not it is in the sole factor.<41> She met v Kavanaugh on respectable 23.

August 23, 2018: "What i am seeking is a supreme Court Justice with the character, the intelligence, and also the balance to impartially use the legislation to the truth of the case. Today’s conference represents an essential step in my vetting process. That process, however, has not concluded."<45>

July 19, 2018: "Trying to determine or distill out and say over there is one problem for me the will overview my decision on this nomination or any type of future nomination because that the U.S. Supreme Court, that is now just how I operate. I have been feather at referee Kavanaugh and his record holistically simply as i did through every various other justice i have had actually an chance to sweet in on."<46>

July 10, 2018: "Let’s put it this way: over there were some who have actually been ~ above the list the I would certainly have had a very, very challenging time supporting, just based upon what was already publicly known around them. We’re not taking care of that."<16>

Rand Paul (R)

Republican Sen. Edge Paul voiced criticism in July 2018 of Brett Kavanaugh"s opinion on an individual privacy and the 4th Amendment. Paul claimed in one interview the he was unsure whether he would vote to confirm Kavanaugh because he to be concerned around Kavanaugh"s location on the 4th Amendment.<47>

July 23, 2018: "Kavanaugh’s place is usually that national security trumps privacy," Paul said. "And he claimed it very strongly and also explicitly. And also that worries me."<47>

July 15, 2018: "I am concerned though, and also perhaps disappointed, that i think Kavanaugh will certainly cancel out Gorsuch’s vote on the fourth Amendment ." "I’m concerned about Kavanaugh. We’re going come have, hopefully, one open and long and also far-ranging conversation about this."<48>

July 9, 2018: "I look forward to the upcoming hearings, reviewing the record, and meeting personally v Judge Kavanaugh, v an open up mind."<49>

Chuck Schumer (D)

Democratic Sen. Chuck Schumer was the Senate minority leader. He met through Kavanaugh on respectable 21, 2018.

August 21, 2018: "I know that the judge told various other members this particular day that he taken into consideration Roe v. Wade cleared up law. That did no say that to me. But that is not the vital or decisive question. Every little thing the can be fried Court decides is cleared up law until a bulk of the can be fried Court decides to unsettle it. Conservative justices have a habit of saying something is cleared up law during their confirmation and then overturning the minute they gain on the bench...I asked him if he agreed that Roe v. Wade and Casey v. To plan Parenthood were appropriately decided. He would not to speak yes. That need to send shivers down the spine of any kind of American who believes in reproductive flexibility for women."<50>


Quinnipiac poll

Quinnipiac college released a vote on October 1, 2018, which found that 48 percent of U.S. Voters would certainly not poll to confirm Kavanaugh, 42 percent would certainly vote to confirm him, and 9 percent did not know. Participants were asked the question: "As you might know, chairman Trump has nominated Brett Kavanaugh to the can be fried Court. Execute you think the U.S. Senate need to confirm Brett Kavanaugh come the can be fried Court, or not?" The poll was carried out September 27-30, 2018, amongst a sample that 1,111 voters across the country. The margin of error to be plus or minus 3.7 percentage points.<51>

Fox News poll

A Fox News poll exit on September 23, 2018, discovered that 43 percent the respondents would vote to check Kavanaugh, 50 percent would certainly not vote to check him, and 7 percent did not know. Participants were asked the question: "President trump card nominated Brett Kavanaugh to serve on the U.S. Can be fried Court. If you were voting top top Kavanaugh’s nomination, would certainly you vote to confirm him or not?" The poll was conducted by call September 16 to 19, 2018, amongst a random national sample of 1,003 registered voters. Its margin that error was plus or minus three percentage points.<52>

USA Today/Ipsos publicly Affairs poll

A poll conducted for USA this day by Ipsos publicly Affairs discovered that 40 percent that Americans were opposed come Kavanaugh"s confirmation and 31 percent to be in donate of his confirmation. The vote was carried out September 19-20 amongst 1,008 American adults. The poll was carried out online. A margin of error was not available.<53>

CNN poll

A poll performed for CNN by SSRS uncovered that 39 percent of Americans assumed the Senate need to not vote to check Kavanaugh if 38 percent assumed that that should. Twenty-three percent had actually no opinion. Respondents to be asked the question: " together you may know, Brett Kavanaugh is the commonwealth judge nominated to offer on the can be fried Court. Would you choose to watch the Senate poll in donate of Kavanaugh serving on the can be fried Court, or not?" The poll was conducted September 6 with 9 and also surveyed 1,003 adults nationwide. The margin of error was plus or minus 3.8 percent points.<54>

Demand Justice/YouGov poll

A poll conducted by demand Justice and also YouGov looked in ~ the effect of the Kavanaugh nomination on voters in red states. The results published by Axios stated:

Among likely autonomous voters in...

Missouri: 35% stated they would certainly be much less likely to vote for Sen. Claire McCaskill if she votes for Kavanaugh.Indiana: 35% said they would be less likely to vote for Sen. Joe Donnelly if the votes because that Kavanaugh.Florida: 31% stated they would certainly be much less likely to poll for Sen. Invoice Nelson if that votes because that Kavanaugh.West Virginia: 30% claimed they would be likely less to poll for Sen. Joe Manchin if the votes for Kavanaugh.North Dakota: 26% stated they would be likely much less to poll for Sen. Heidi Heitkamp if she votes for Kavanaugh.<55>

The poll surveyed 2,717 likely voters in Florida, Indiana, Missouri, phibìc Dakota, and West Virginia from respectable 24 to September 1.<56>

Hill.TV/HarrisX poll

A poll carried out by Hill.TV and also HarrisX uncovered that 48 percent the respondents thought Kavanaugh"s check hearings should proceed as planned following the verdicts concerning Paul Manafort or Michael Cohen. Twenty-five percent believed the hearings should be delayed and 27 percent to be unsure. Respondents to be asked the question: "Should there be a delay in the vote on Brett Kavanaugh’s can be fried Court nomination provided the judicial verdicts involving Michael Cohen or Paul Manafort, or are these verdicts unrelated and also the poll should proceed as planned?" The vote was conducted August 24-25, 2018, among 1,001 registered voters. The margin that error to be plus or minus 3.1 percentage points.<57>

The connected Press-NORC facility for publicly Affairs research study poll

A poll carried out by The linked Press-NORC center for public Affairs Research discovered that 46 percent the Americans neither favored no one opposed Kavanaugh"s confirmation. Respondents to be asked the question: "As you might know, can be fried Court righteousness Anthony Kennedy is retiring, and also President Trump has actually nominated Brett Kavanaugh to replace him. Execute you favor, oppose, or no favor nor oppose Brett Kavanaugh"s check by the U.S. Senate as a supreme Court Justice?" The poll was conducted August 16-20, 2018, through 1,055 respondents. Its margin the error was plus or minus 4.2 portion points.<58>

WPA Intelligence/Definers public Affairs poll

A poll carried out by WPA Intelligence and also Definers public Affairs uncovered that "support for Judge Kavanaugh’s nomination is highest possible in 4 states the President Trump winner by double-digits in 2016 and where incumbent autonomous senators are an especially vulnerable." according to the poll, 80 percent of north Dakota voters sustained Kavanaugh"s nomination. The number was 71 percent in Montana, 71 percent in West Virginia, and also 67 percent in Missouri. Respondents were asked the question: "Thinking about President Trump’s nominee come the supreme Court, referee Kavanaugh, are you an ext likely to poll for a U.S senator that supports the President’s supreme Court nominee, more likely to poll for a U.S. Senator that opposes the President’s nominee, or is a U.S. Senator’s place on even if it is they support the President’s nominee come the can be fried Court not something that will influence your vote?" an ext than 7,000 voters in phibìc Dakota, Montana, West Virginia, Missouri, Indiana, Ohio, Michigan, Florida, Pennsylvania, and also Wisconsin participated in the survey. The poll"s methodology did no state a margin that error.<59>

Fox News poll

A Fox News poll to be released on august 23, 2018, stating that 46 percent of Americans would certainly vote to check Brett Kavanaugh, if 45 percent would not poll to execute so. Nine percent did no know. Participants to be asked the question: "President trump card nominated Brett Kavanaugh to offer on the U.S. Can be fried Court. If you were voting top top Kavanaugh’s nomination, would you poll to check him or not?" The vote was performed by both Anderson Robbins research study (D) and also Shaw & company Research (R). That was carried out by live interviewers from respectable 19 with 21, 2018, using a randomized nationwide sample of 1,009 registered voters. Its margin the error was plus or minus three portion points.<60>

Public policy poll

A Public plan Polling inspection was released on respectable 21, 2018, stating the 49 percent that Maine voter did no think the Sen. Susan Collins (D), the an elderly senator native the state, have to vote to confirm Brett Kavanaugh. Forty-two percent believed she should vote to check him, and 8 percent were not sure. Respondents were asked the question: "Recently Brett Kavanaugh was nominated come the supreme Court. Carry out you think senator Susan Collins should vote to confirm Brett Kavanaugh come the supreme Court, or not?" The vote was carried out from respectable 17-18, 2018, and also surveyed 529 Maine voters. That is margin the error to be plus or minus 4.3 percent points.<61>

North Star Opinion study poll

A north Star Opinion research study poll exit on august 21, 2018, uncovered that voter in Indiana, north Dakota, and also West Virginia desire the U.S. Senate to check Brett Kavanaugh. In phibìc Dakota, voters want to view him shown 60 to 23 percent. Those numbers to be 51 to 32 percent in West Virginia and also 46 to 32 percent in Indiana. The poll was performed in each state from august 6-9, 2018, amongst 500 registered voters from each state. The poll"s margin that error was 4.38 percent points.<62>

Trafalgar team poll

A Trafalgar team poll was released on august 20, 2018, stating the if Joe Donnelly (D) voted to check Kavanaugh, 39.4 percent of Indiana voters would vote because that his re-election, 38.5 percent would vote because that his Republican opponent Mike Braun, and also 22.2 percent to be unsure. If Donnelly did no vote to confirm Kavanaugh, 45.3 percent the the state"s voters would certainly vote for his re-election and also 38.0 percent would vote because that Braun, if 16.7 percent were undecided. The vote was performed from July 31 to august 7 and also surveyed 1,420 likely general election voters. That is margin the error was plus or minus 2.6 percentage points.<63>

CNN poll

A CNN poll carried out by SSRS was released on august 16, 2018, stating that 37 percent of Americans want to watch the Senate vote to confirm Kavanaugh, if 40 percent walk not want the Senate to check the judge. Twenty-two percent of Americans had actually no opinion. Respondents were asked the question: "As you may know, Brett Kavanaugh is the federal judge nominated to serve on the can be fried Court. Would you favor to see the Senate poll in donate of Kavanaugh offer on the supreme Court, or not?" The poll was carried out August 9-12, 2018, and also surveyed 1,002 respondents. That margin of error was plus or minus 3.9 percentage points.<64>

Quinnipiac poll

A Quinnipiac poll to be released on respectable 15, 2018, stating the 44 percent of voters assumed the U.S. Senate must confirm Brett Kavanaugh, when 39 percent stated it have to not. Seventeen percent of voter did not know. Participants were asked the question: "As you may know, chairman Trump has actually nominated Brett Kavanaugh to the supreme Court. Carry out you think the U.S. Senate should confirm Brett Kavanaugh to the supreme Court, or not?" The poll was conducted August 9-13, 2018, and surveyed 1,175 voter nationwide. That margin that error to be plus or minus 3.4 percentage points.<65>

Long Island university poll

A lengthy Island university poll exit on July 26, 2018, stated that 38 percent of Americans think Kavanaugh is default to serve on the U.S. Can be fried Court, while 29 percent do not think the referee is qualified. Twenty-two percent of respondents were unsure. The statement which respondents to be asked to agree/disagree through was: "Judge Kavanaugh is qualified because that a chair on the can be fried Court." The poll was conducted July 15-18, 2018, and also surveyed 1007 Americans. It had a margin the error the 3.0 percent.<66>

Quinippiac poll

A Quinippiac university poll exit on July 25, 2018, stated that 41 percent of voters believed the Senate need to not check Kavanaugh"s nomination, if 40 percent that voters claimed the Senate should. The one percent difference was within the poll"s margin the error (3.5 percent). Participants were asked the question: "As you might know, chairman Trump has nominated Brett Kavanaugh come the can be fried Court. Carry out you think the U.S. Senate need to confirm Brett Kavanaugh come the supreme Court, or not?" The poll was conducted July 18-23 and surveyed 1,177 voters nationwide utilizing live interviewers who referred to as both landlines and also cell phones.<67>

North Star Opinion study poll

North Star Opinion study released a poll on July 19, 2018, that found a bulk of voter in Alabama, Indiana, north Dakota, and West Virginia said the Senate must confirm Brett Kavanaugh. Phibìc Dakota voters stated he should be confirmed 60 come 22 percent, West Virginia voters 55 to 30 percent, Alabama voters 54 to 30 percent, and also Indiana voter 52 come 34 percent. The polling firm did no release the concern voters to be asked which brought about these numbers, nor did the specify a margin the error. The inspection was performed July 10-16 in Alabama, July 10-15 in Indiana, July 11-16 in phibìc Dakota, and also July 12-16 in West Virginia, through no calls conducted on July 13. Respondent were created of registered and also eligible voter in the four states.<68>

Gallup poll

A Gallup poll released on July 17, 2018, reported the 41 percent the Americans want the U.S. Senate to poll for the check of Kavanaugh, 37 percent wanted it come vote versus the confirmation, and 22 percent had actually no opinion. Participants to be asked the question: "Would you choose to view the Senate poll in donate of Brett Kavanaugh offer on the supreme Court, or not?" The poll was carried out July 10-15 and also results were based on telephone interviews v a arbitrarily sample the 1,296 adult aged 18 and older, living in all 50 U.S. States and the district of Columbia. The margin of error to be plus or minus three percent points.<69>

Huffington Post/YouGov poll

A Huffington Post/YouGov poll exit on July 13, 2018, found that 33 percent of voter would favor to check out their senators poll in donate of Kavanaugh"s confirmation, 31 percent want their senators to vote versus Kavanaugh"s confirmation, and also 36 percent were not sure. One thousand U.S. Citizens participated in web-based interviews indigenous July 10 - 11, 2018. Participants to be selected native an opt-in internet panel through YouGov making use of sample matching. A arbitrarily sample to be selected from the 2014 American neighborhood Study. The margin that error for this study was to add or minus 3.9 percentage points.<70>

Fox News poll

Fox News exit a poll on July 12, 2018, the reported 38 percent of voters would vote to confirm Kavanaugh, 32 percent would certainly not, and 30 percent to be unsure. The question which established the outcomes was: "President trumped nominated Brett Kavanaugh to offer on the U.S. Supreme Court. If you were voting on Kavanaugh’s nomination, would certainly you poll to check him or not?" The random national sample that 1,007 registered voter were inquiry a collection of concerns July 9-11, 2018. The poll was carried out under the direction that both Anderson Robbins study (D) and also Shaw & company Research (R) through telephone v live interviewers. It had actually a margin of error of add to or minus three portion points.<71><72>

Satellite spending

Millions of dollars were spent by satellite groups throughout the confirmation process both supporting and opposing Kavanaugh. The Judicial crisis Network led those sustaining the confirmation; it had actually spent $5.3 million on ad buys and a website launch as of august 2018. Top the groups opposing Kavanaugh"s check was need Justice, i m sorry pledged $5 million.<73>

Support because that Kavanaugh


The 45Committee spent $650,000 ~ above an advertisement that talks about Kavanaugh"s "honor, truth and strong moral character."<74>

Americans for Prosperity

Americans for Prosperity claimed it would spend six numbers on direct mail and digital ads sustaining Kavanaugh"s confirmation. Politico reported the group sent the end mailers in Florida, Indiana, West Virginia, and also North Dakota, and also a digital ad ran in those states and Missouri, Pennsylvania, Montana, Ohio and also Michigan, and also Alabama. Every one of those states other than Alabama had autonomous senators up because that re-election in 2018.<75>

Heritage Action

Heritage Action, the 501(c)(4) sister company of the legacy Foundation, announced the would spend a majority of that is 2018 $11.5 million spending plan on sustaining Kavanaugh"s confirmation. Follow to Axios, the team was going to "campaign on instead of of the nominee v media hits and also digital marketing spots, consisting of on Faceboook and also Twitter, and also through local grassroots events."<76>

Judicial crisis Network

The Judicial situation Network invested over $5.3 million to assistance the check of Kavanaugh complying with the announcement of his nomination.

The team spent $400,000 starting October 1, 2018, pushing Sens. Joe Manchin (D) and also Heidi Heitkamp (D) to assistance Kavanaugh.<77>

The group spent $1.5 million to operation ads targeting democrats in West Virginia, phibìc Dakota, Indiana, and also Alabama, starting on July 23.<78> The ad buy complied with a inspection from phibìc Star Opinion study that uncovered 60 percent of voter in phibìc Dakota, 54 percent in Alabama, 52 percent in Indiana, and also 55 percent in West Virginia said Kavanaugh must be confirmed.<79> The group had aired 2,237 spots together of respectable 2, according to political advertising tracking team Kantar Media’s CMAG.<80> previous ads went towards targeting democratic Sens. Joe Manchin, Joe Donnelly, Heidi Heitkamp, and Doug Jones. Automatically following Kavanaugh"s nomination announcement, the team released an ad supporting his confirmation, make a $1.4 million ad buy, and also launched the website ConfirmKavanaugh.com.

The network invested over $10 million in assistance of Neil Gorsuch, whom Trump nominated in 2017 to success Antonin Scalia on the supreme Court. You can view 2 of the Judicial situation Network ads below.<81><82>

National Rifle Association

The nationwide Rifle combination (NRA) started airing local ads on respectable 7, 2018, phone call on Sens. Doug Jones (D-Ala.), Lisa Murkowski (R-Alaska), Joe Donnelly (D-Ind.), Joe Manchin (D-W.Va.), and Heidi Heitkamp (D-N.D.) to check Kavanaugh. The ad cast Kavanaugh together the potential deciding poll on 2nd Amendment problems on the supreme Court. "Your right to self-defense counts on this vote," the narrator said.<83>

“The NRA strongly supports judge Brett Kavanaugh’s check to the U.S. Supreme Court since he will defend our constitutional ideal to keep and bear arms,” claimed NRA peak lobbyist chris W. Cox. “It’s an essential that every pro-Second Amendment voter urge their senators to check Judge Kavanaugh.”<84>

The group said that planned to invest at the very least $1 million sustaining Kavanaugh"s confirmation.<85>

Republican national Committee

The Republican nationwide Committee (RNC) introduced a six-figure digital advertisement buy on respectable 31, 2018, encouraging voter to pressure their democratic senators to check Kavanaugh. The ads directed viewers to the website confirmjudgekavanaugh.com, which consists of information on the judge.<86>

Susan B. Anthony List

The pro-life team Susan B. Anthony List began organizing efforts to support the confirmation of Kavanaugh automatically after trump card announced the judge"s nomination. The group"s vice chairman of interactions Mallory Quigley said, "We’re arranging over 50 other national and state pro-life teams for the purposes of mobilizing your grassroots to call senators in support of the nominee." The efforts include sending out canvassers come Indiana, Iowa, Missouri, Montana, north Dakota, Florida, and also West Virginia to target voter who desire to see Roe v. Go overturned.<87>

The team announced in early on August it would hold 26 push conferences across Indiana, phibìc Dakota, Missouri, Florida, Alabama, Montana, and West Virginia come recruit neighborhood pro-life numbers to join national speaker in sending messages come red-state Democrats.

“Battleground state voters who chosen President trump by overwhelming margins to trust him come nominate just originalist judges who will respect and also uphold the Constitution, a vital promise fulfilled in judge Kavanaugh,” stated Susan B. Anthony perform president Marjorie Dannenfelser. “Vulnerable senators up for re-election this year have a choice: stand with the President and their constituents and also vote to check Judge Kavanaugh, or cavern to press from lining Schumer and the extreme abortion lobby.”<88>

Opposition to Kavanaugh

American civil Liberties Union

The American civil Liberties Union (ACLU) announced the would invest $1 million ~ above ads opposing Kavanaugh top top October 1, 2018. The ads, which compared Kavanaugh to invoice Clinton and also Bill Cosby, aired beginning October 1 in Alaska, Colorado, Nebraska, and West Virginia.<89>

Demand Justice

The group need Justice, created on June 28 and also led by previous Hillary Clinton campaign staffer Brian Fallon, planned to spend $5 million opposing Kavanaugh. Fallon tweeted: “The following SCOTUS pick should await the following election, but McConnell won"t wait. The future that the Court because that the next 40 years - and also thus the fate of abortion rights, and also the ACA - might be determined in the next 3 months.”<90>

Demand Justice began running TV and digital ads ~ above July 5 and planned to invest in voter mobilization, according to Politico.<91>

The ad campaign target Maine and also Alaska, dwellings to moderate Republican Senators Susan Collins and Lisa Murkowski, who confronted pressure through those opposing Trump"s potential nominees to vote versus Kavanaugh. The ads focused on comment Trump do in October 2016, wherein he said he would certainly appoint can be fried Court justices that would overturn Roe v. Wade.<91><92><93>

“Senator Susan Collins could be the deciding poll on Trump’s pick for justice. She claims to assistance a woman’s right to have an abortion, so why i will not ~ she ascendancy out voting because that Trump’s anti-choice picks?” one ad says.<92>

NARAL Pro-Choice America

The team NARAL Pro-Choice America started an advertisement campaign to oppose Kavanaugh"s check on July 9, 2018. The ads ran in Texas, Alaska, Maine, Colorado, and Nevada. The Washington Examiner reported the the group focused on moderate Republican Sens. Lisa Murkowski (Alaska) and Susan Collins (Maine), who challenged pressure by those the opposite Trump"s potential nominees to vote versus Kavanaugh. The ads likewise targeted Sen. Dean Heller (R) in Nevada, the only Republican senator who faced re-election in 2018 in a state the Hillary Clinton winner in the 2016 presidential race.<94><95>

The team partnered v the human being Rights campaign in late July to command a phone financial institution opposing Kavanaugh"s confirmation. They called constituents in multiple claims urging castle to contact their senators to ask lock to vote no top top the confirmation.<96>

Whip the Vote

A group referred to as Whip the vote was launched on respectable 27, 2018, come pressure democratic senators to oppose Kavanaugh"s confirmation. The campaign was donate by satellite teams including MoveOn, NARAL Pro-Choice America, color of Change, Progressive change Campaign Committee, everyday Kos, CREDO, Democracy for America, and also UltraViolet.<100>

Kavanaugh nomination role in 2018 elections

McConnell cautions of hold-up in nomination vote

Politico reported on July 20 the Senate bulk Leader Mitch McConnell (R) told an elderly Republicans the was all set to hold-up the confirmation vote for Kavanaugh until just prior to the midterm elections if Democrats continued to push for the relax of documents on Kavanaugh. The vote delay would serve 2 purposes, according to Politico: that would save "vulnerable red-state Democrats off the project trail while perhaps forcing anti-Kavanaugh liberals come swallow a demoralizing defeat simply ahead of the midterms."<101>

Sen. Dianne Feinstein (D) claimed Democrats want the papers to correctly vet Kavanaugh. "Kavanaugh has comprehensive record. We suppose at least 1 million pages of files from his tenure in the White House and as a politics operative," Feinstein said.<102>

Ads highlighting SCOTUS vacancy appear in general and also primary election battlegrounds

Sens. Claire McCaskill (Mo.) and also Bill Nelson (Fla.), two democratic incumbents in claims that donate Donald trump card in 2016, confronted pressure on your future confirmation poll of Brett Kavanaugh for the U.S. Can be fried Court.

“The eye of a nation are on our Missouri. We decide i m sorry values control the Senate and the supreme Court,” Missouri Attorney general Josh Hawley (R) stated in a $500,000 ad campaign exit July 9, 2018. “Claire McCaskill desires liberals in charge. That"s how she votes. That"s not Missouri"s way.”<103>

McCaskill comment to Hawley"s objections that she"d rather comment on other topics. "This is obviously some place he feeling comfortable, talking about everything that is the can be fried Court. ook in ~ the decisions that have to be do week in and also week out , this is a very small percentage of the workload. Over there is a whole lot of other stuff that Missourians have no idea wherein he stands. None."<104>

In Florida, the rick Scott project released an ad in early on July stating that Nelson did no oppose any kind of judicial nominations by autonomous presidents. The clip’s narrator concluded, “Nelson obeyed party bosses every time. Now Nelson opposes this president’s selection before the selection has to be made. You can not get much more party line than that.”<105>

Both McCaskill and Nelson voted against Trump’s an initial Supreme Court nominee, Neil Gorsuch.

Appointed Sen. Cindy Hyde-Smith (R) ran to save her chair in a distinct election in November and also she released an advertisement implying her chief rival, state Sen. Kris McDaniel (R), would not be a for sure vote because that Kavanaugh.<107> The clip highlights clip of McDaniel saying the Trump is not a constitutional conservative.

Republican nationwide Committee targets ten crucial states during midterms

The Republican nationwide Committee (RNC) began a program concentrating on the check of Kavanaugh in ten crucial states during the 2018 midterm elections. The effort would it is in "an substantial field program, digital ads and op-eds," follow to CNN, and also would target democratic senators up for re-election in states won through Donald trump in 2016. The RNC allocated $250 million towards the midterm elections.<108>

"We have actually the largest field program we"ve ever before had, and we"re utilizing it to take Judge Kavanaugh"s check fight straight to voters," claimed RNC chairman Ronna McDaniel. "If Senate Democrats want to obstruct this extremely qualified referee to very nice one to their base, we"ll make sure their constituents hold them accountable this November."<108>

The says the RNC targeted to be Missouri, Montana, north Dakota, Indiana, Ohio, Florida, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Pennsylvania, and Michigan.

All four of the incumbent democratic senators who shed their re-election bids in 2018 protest Kavanaugh"s nomination. They to be Sens. Joe Donnelly (D-Ind.), Heidi Heitkamp (D-N.D.), Claire McCaskill (D-Mo.), and Bill Nelson (D-Fla.).


audioeditorfree.com maintain the complying with reactions come the nomination the Brett Kavanaugh to succeed Anthony Kennedy top top the U.S. Can be fried Court.

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Process to fill the seat

See also: procedure to to fill the vacated seat of justice Anthony Kennedy

Although the rules for appointing and also confirming a U.S. Supreme Court righteousness are collection out in the U.S. Constitution, the process for choosing nominees is not codified in law. Past presidents have actually received lists of references from the White house counsel, the lawyer general and lawyers in the justice Department"s Office of legal Counsel. Justices have regularly been friend or acquaintances who shared ideological views through the president.<125>

The nominating process is also influenced by individuals and organizations outside of the administration. The American Bar combination (ABA), with its 15-member Committee on federal Judiciary, prices nominees together "well qualified," "qualified" or "not qualified." Others likewise lobby the president to select nominees sympathetic to your views or to oppose those with whom castle differ.<126>

Presidents have occasionally had actually what is often dubbed a litmus test or vital position that a prospective justice must hold to be thought about for nomination. Such a test is frequently on an important social issue. Yet a nominee"s views execute not constantly conform to your future opinions. Some justices have ruled in means that surprised the presidents who nominated them. Notable examples are righteousness Tom C. Clark (nominated by chairman Harry S. Truman), chef Justice Earl Warren (nominated by president Dwight D. Eisenhower) and also Justice David Souter (nominated by chairman George H. W. Bush).<127>

Supreme Court confirmation

1.) The normal nomination process starts with the president selecting a nominee. It is not uncommon for the chairman to consult Senate leadership and the leader of the Senate Judiciary Committee prior to deciding top top a nominee.<128><129>

2.) The Senate Judiciary Committee then considers the nominee. The committee conducts a rigorous investigation right into the nominee’s background, gleaning a feeling of his or she judicial philosophy and temperament, i beg your pardon helps notify whether the senators will assistance the nominee. Throughout this component of the process, the American Bar Association"s standing Committee on federal Judiciary reviews the nominee. The nominee likewise visits v senators in their workplaces in bespeak to aid win assistance for nomination. The most public facet of the process is when the nominee testifies before the Judiciary Committee and also takes questions. The hearing, i m sorry is kept open up at the discretion of the chairman, can last more than a day, as members, specifically opponents, verbally spar v the nominee. Having the nominee show up before the committee became a part of the procedure beginning v the nomination of man M. Harlan in 1955. The an initial televised can be fried Court nomination listening took place in 1981 for Sandra work O’Connor.<128><129>

3.) Typically, a main after the hearing is adjourned, the Senate Judiciary Committee hold a poll on the nominee. The committee’s practice has been to send the nomination, even if it is or not the nominee wins a majority, come the complete Senate to permit the chamber to decide whether he or she should be confirmed.<128><129>

4.) The debate in the Senate is reserved by the Senate majority leader in consultation v the decimal leader. On April 6, 2017, throughout the procedure of confirming righteousness Neil Gorsuch to the can be fried Court, the Senate lower the threshold come close dispute on supreme Court nominations to a simple bulk from 60 votes. Follow to the Congressional research study Service, "The practical effect of the Senate activity on April 6 was to alleviate the level of Senate support important to confirm a can be fried Court nominee."<128><130>

5.) The president likewise may select to do a recess appointment, which would avoid the require for Senate confirmation. However the justice"s term would end with the end of the following session of Congress, rather than the lifetime appointments noted by Senate confirmation. There have been 12 recess appointments made to the supreme Court, most in the 19th century, follow to the Congressional study Service. The most recent was made by chairman Dwight D. Eisenhower, who offered Justice Potter Stewart a recess appointment on October 14, 1958, come a chair vacated by righteousness Harold Burton. Justice Stewart was nominated through Eisenhower come the same seat ~ above January 17, 1959, and was evidenced by the U.S. Senate on might 5, 1959.<128><129><131>

Historic context

Vacancies: departure day to swearing-in the successor

The typical vacancy length on the supreme Court since 1962—when defined as the size of time elapsed in between a Justice’s exit date and the swearing-in of your successor—is 89 days. Four of these vacancies lasted for just a couple of hours each; the successor was sworn in the same day the retiring righteousness officially left office. The longest vacancy under this definition was 422 days, adhering to the fatality of justice Antonin Scalia.

The second longest vacancy in the time was 391 job after justice Abe Fortas retired on might 14, 1969, in the wake up of a collection of principles scandals.<132> First-term chairman Richard Nixon (R) nominated two various successors because that Fortas—Clement Haynsworth, a fourth Circuit Appeals Judge, and Harold Carswell, a 5th Circuit Appeals Judge. The Senate garbage both. Nixon’s third nominee, Eighth Circuit Appeals referee Harry Blackmun, was evidenced on may 12, 1970, and sworn in on June 9, 1970—391 days, after Fortas’ retirement.<133>

The third longest vacancy in this time frame was between the regards to Lewis Franklin Powell and Anthony Kennedy. Powell retired on June 26, 1987. The Senate confirmed Kennedy on February 3, 1988. He to be sworn in on February 18, 1988, making for a 237 job vacancy native Powell"s retirement to Kennedy"s swearing-in. Choose Blackmun, Kennedy’s check by the Senate complied with two rejections. President Ronald Reagan (R) nominated that on November 30, 1987.<134>

Sources: commonwealth Judicial Center, "History of the commonwealth Judiciary," accessed June 27, 2018SupremeCourt.gov, "Members of the supreme Court of the united States," accessed June 27, 2018

Vacancies: departure day to confirmation of successor

When vacancy is characterized as the length of time between a Justice’s exit date and the confirmation day of their successor, the median is 80 days. The vacancies between Scalia and also Gorsuch and also Fortas and also Blackmun space still the longest, in ~ 419 and also 363 days, respectively. The third longest is between Lewis Powell and also Anthony Kennedy, in ~ 222 days.

Sources: federal Judicial Center, "History the the federal Judiciary," accessed June 27, 2018SupremeCourt.gov, "Members the the supreme Court that the unified States," accessed June 27, 2018

Vacancies: announcement of retirement to check of successor

When vacancy is identified as the length of time between the date at which a justice announced his or her retirement and also the confirmation day of your successor, the average length is 138 days. The longest vacancy is, again, in between the terms of Scalia and Gorsuch at 419 days, complied with by Fortas and also Blackmun in ~ 363 days. However the third longest, under this definition, is between the regards to Earl Warren and Warren Burger, at 361 days. Warren announced his retirement on June 13, 1968, almost a year prior to he officially left the bench top top June 23, 1969.

See more: How Many Games In A College Basketball Season ? It Depends College Basketball

In situations where a righteousness died and no retirement announcement took place, we provided their exit date. On numerous occasions, judge officially retired on the exact same day together their announcement.

We to be unable to check Goldberg"s announcement date. The date used is his leave date.Sources: commonwealth Judicial Center, "History that the federal Judiciary," accessed June 27, 2018SupremeCourt.gov, "Members of the supreme Court that the unified States," accessed June 27, 2018To translate in retirement announcement dates, we used a variety of different sources. They can be accessed here

Vacancies prior to 1962

Prior come the 1960’s, there were 2 much longer vacancies on the Court. A seat sat vacant for virtually two-and-a-half years during the presidencies of man Tyler and James K. Polk in the mid-19th century. Justice Henry Baldwin died in office ~ above April 21, 1844. His ultimate successor, Robert Grier, was confirmed by the Senate and sworn right into office on the same day, august 10, 1846. In the interim, the Senate rejected four nominees. Another prolonged vacancy took place adhering to the death of righteousness Peter Daniel on may 31, 1860. Daniel’s seat to be left unoccupied until President Abraham Lincoln’s (R) nominee, Samuel Miller, was confirmed and sworn in on July 21, 1862.<135>

See also


Justices that the supreme Court the the joined StatesActive justices

Chief justice: Roberts Associate justices: Alito • Barrett •Breyer • Gorsuch • ka • Kavanaugh •Sotomayor • cutting board

Senior justices

Kennedy • O"Connor • Souter

Former chef justices

Burger • chase • Ellsworth • Fuller • Hughes • Jay • Marshall • Rehnquist • Rutledge • rock • Taft • Taney • Vinson • Waite • Warren •

WhiteFormer associate justices

Baldwin • Barbour • black color • Blackmun • Blair • Blatchford • Bradley • Brandeis • Brennan • Brewer • Brown • Burton • butler • Byrnes • Campbell • Cardozo • Catron • follow • Clark • Clarke • Clifford • Curtis • Cushing • Daniel • Davis • day • Douglas • Duvall • ar • Fortas • Frankfurter • Ginsburg •Goldberg • Gray • Grier • Harlan i • Harlan II • Holmes • hunt • Iredell • H. Jackson • R. Jackson • T. Johnson • W. Johnson, Jr. • J. Lamar • L. Lamar • Livingston • Lurton • Marshall • Matthews • McKenna • McKinley • McLean • McReynolds • müller • Minton • Moody • Moore • Murphy • Nelson • Paterson • Peckham • Pitney • Powell • Reed • Roberts • W. Rutledge • Sanford • Scalia • Shiras • Stevens • Stewart • Story • strong • Sutherland • Swayne • Thompson • Todd • Trimble • valve Devanter • Washington • Wayne • B. White • Whittaker • Wilson • Woodbury • Woods