The Name. The surname "Jerusalem" wake up 806 times in the Bible, 660 time in the Old Testament and 146 times in the new Testament; extr references come the city happen as synonyms.
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Jerusalem was established as a Canaanite city through the Chalcolithic duration (ca. 4000-3100b.c.), occupying the south east hill that right now bears the name "City of David." Steep slopes on every side of the hill noted a defensible site, and a feather at the foot the the hill listed necessary water. The faster probable incident of the name appears in the Execration messages of Egypt (nineteenth to eighteenth centuries b.c.) as Rusalimum. The Amarna letter from so late Bronze period Egypt (fourteenth century b.c.), created in the Akkadian language, incorporate the name Urusalim. In Assyrian and Babylonian texts relating to the kingdom of Judah, Ursalimmu or a similar kind appears.
The historical investigation the Jerusalem is hampered by ongoing occupation; thus, also though no proof exists because that the sanctity of the site in Canaanite thought, human nature supports the presumption that the city had actually a religious center. The name is composed of two elements: yrw and also salem
Jerusalem in the Old Testament. Salem. The an initial occurrence the Jerusalem is in Joshua 10:1, yet an allusion to Jerusalem shows up in Genesis 14:18 with the recommendation to Melchizedek, king of Salem. Poetic parallel building and construction in Psalm 76:2 ( Heb 76:3 ) converts Salem through Zion. Theologically, the Canaanite city that Shalem has become the biblical city of Shalom, Peace. Prophetically, Isaiah spoke of the Prince of tranquility (Shalom) who would power on David"s throne (in Jerusalem), a reference complete of messianic portent ( Isa 9:6 ).
Jebus. At the time of the Israelite occupation of Canaan, Jerusalem was well-known as Jebus, a to reduce expression for "City of the Jebusites." recommendations in Joshua, Judges, and also 1 Chronicles keep in mind that Jebus is another name for Jerusalem. The Romans likewise renamed the city Aelia Capitolina, but in both situations the older name revived.
City that David. Second Samuel recounts David"s conquest of Jebus, exploiting the mystery watershaft from the spring Gihon outside the city wall surface to its leave within the city. From that time on David "took increase residence in the fortress, and also called that the City of David" ( 5:9 ).His subsequent building and construction of a royal residence made Jerusalem a royal city. His decision to preeminence from Jerusalem elevated a city, poorly positioned for either profession or armed forces activity, to funding status. The politically neutral city, belonging to neither the north nor southerly tribes, likewise became his personal property.
David revolutionized Jerusalem into the spiritual center the his kingdom by bringing right into it the ark of the commitment ( 2 Sam 6:1-19 ).Although David was not enabled to construct a temple, the come of the ark forever linked Jerusalem with the cult of Yahweh. Solomon, David"s son, intensified the religious dimension of the city by creating the holy place of the Lord, symbolizing the presence of Yahweh in Jerusalem and Israel. David started the process of creating the imperial and religious nature of Jerusalem, yet it to be Solomon who reinvented the previous Jebusite stronghold right into a truly capital and also national cultic center. The royal and also covenantal attributes of Jerusalem are attached in Psalm 2:6, where God announces the "I have actually installed mine King ~ above Zion, my divine hill."
Jerusalem is imbued through an eternal nature in number of passages in the Old Testament. Together Yahweh"s spokesman, Nathan promised David a dynasty that would dominance in perpetuity ( 2 Sam 7:15 ). This promise was expanded to Jerusalem because of its role as the imperial city. In addition, Solomon described the holy place as the place for God come "dwell forever" ( 1 kings 8:13 ).While both kingship and also covenant were to be centered in Jerusalem forever (cf. Psalms 132 ), the promise to be conditional ( 1 emperors 9:6-9 ).
The bible is complete of referrals to the stress confronting the prophets and people of Jerusalem end the "eternal" nature that the city and the conditions. Isaiah, because that example, construed that the Lord would certainly shield Jerusalem ( 31:5 ), yet he was likewise aware that certain conditions did use ( 1:19-20 ; 7:9 b). Back painfully aware of the transgressions the the city ( 1:21-23 ), he nonetheless retained a hopeful vision because that its future ( 2:3 ). Micah, Isaiah"s contemporary, held comparable views ( 3:12 ; 5:1-4 ). The prophets knew that the devastation of the city was imminent, because that the cult had become corrupt and also Jerusalem, the house of the covenant, would have to pay the price. The people"s id in the mere visibility of the cult together a talisman against harm was not sufficient to save them indigenous the discipline of destruction.
The idea that Jerusalem to be inviolable persisted, however, no doubt strengthened in component by the deliverance that the city from the siege the Sennacherib ( 2 queens 19:20-36 ).Nearly a century later, complying with the apostasy of Manasseh and the reforms of Josiah, Jehoiakim ascended the throne of David in Jerusalem. The prophet Jeremiah, his contemporary, early dismissed Jehoiakim together a despot worthy the the "burial of a donkey" ( Jer22:19 ). Jeremiah had actually supported the reforms of Josiah, however in the end the civilization were also hardened to change. Castle were persuaded that the indestructible city and also temple of the lord would defend them in spite of their depravity ( Jer 7:4 ). Once Jeremiah denied this and predicted the damage of the temple, a century-old echo that Micah, it almost cost that his life. Jerusalem did not readjust and the death of exile to be the result.
The Babylonian exile detailed the environment for the change of Jerusalem, which lay desolate in ruins, into a spirituality symbol because that the Jews. As important as Jerusalem had actually been together a royal center for the kingdom of Israel and, after ~ Solomon"s death, because that the kingdom of Judah, with the periods its importance has been as "the city the the an excellent King, " the lord ( Psalm 48:2 ; Matt 5:35 ). The death of the kingdom of Judah lugged the political dominion of the Davidic empire to a close; thereafter the ascendancy of the Davidic home was viewed in messianic and eschatological terms. ~ above the return of the Jews from the exile come the damages of Jerusalem, they rebuilt the temple but not the palace. The true sovereignty the God to be spiritual rather than political.
Zion. "Zion" is likely obtained from a Semitic root concerned a strengthened tower atop a mountain. Its earliest appearance in the scriptures equates the stronghold the Zion with the City the David ( 2 Sam 5:7 ). Zion, then, was the strengthened hill the Jebus overcame by David.
Zion was originally a geographical term because that the City that David, yet with the extension of the city northward to combine the temple Mount, Zion came additionally to signify the dwellingplace the Yahweh ( Psalm9:11 ; < 9:12 >).The relocate of the ark the the commitment from the time in the city come the temple ideal may have actually prompted the transition of name.
The name "Zion" is seldom offered in historic passages, yet it occurs commonly in poetic and also prophetic compositions together a synonym for all Jerusalem. Over time Zion take it on figurative as well as geographical connotations. Jerusalem is dubbed the"Daughter of Zion ( Isa 1:8 ) and also the"Virgin Daughter that Zion" ( 2 majesties 19:21 ).Jerusalem"s inhabitants are dubbed "sons of Zion" ( Lam 4:2 ), the"women that Zion" ( Isa 3:16 ), and also the"elders that the Daughter the Zion" ( Lam 2:10 ). In this expressions the city has been personified. The extension of a location name to describe its occupants recognizes the the character of a city is determined more by the characteristics of its population than by its buildings.
A visitor to modern Jerusalem will be presented the western hill rather than the City that David together Mount Zion. Through an altering usage over the centuries the name has actually migrated come the west, however archaeology has shown that the initial site was the same with the City of David. No matter where the surname rests geographically, Zion"s true definition is in the heavens wherein God"s dwelling will be v his human being ( Rev 21:3-4 ).
Moriah. Moriah occurs just twice in the bible ( Gen 22:2 ; 2 Chron 3:1 ). The rare use of the name, however, belies that theological significance. Abraham was instructed by God to take it his boy to the land of Moriah and there to offer him together a sacrifice. The place was three days" trip from Beersheba. The Chronicler, composing in the postexilic period, has associated the place of the giving of Isaac with not only Jerusalem but specifically through the temple Mount. This is the earliest evidence for this link which is likewise attested in Josephus (Ant. 1.13.1f <222-27>; 7.13.4 <329-34>), Bk. Jub.18:13, rabbinic literature, and Islamic assumed (although v Ishmael as Abraham"s son). This connection amplified the sanctity the Jerusalem and also the holy place Mount and contributed come the basis for the Islamic surname for the city, El-Quds, "The holy (City)."
After Abraham to be prevented indigenous slaying Isaac, and also the ram was noted as a substitutionary sacrificial victim, Abraham dubbed the surname of the location Yahweh-jireh,"The lord sees." even so, the name never attained common usage.
The link of Jerusalem through the sacred hill of Yahweh is implicitly in plenty of of the references to mountain (Heb. Har) in the Old Testament. The concept of a sacred mountain as the abode of divine beings was usual in the ancient Near East. In ~ Ugarit on the phibìc Syrian coast, mount Zaphon come the north was the sacred mountain. The most energetic of the gods of Ugarit was dubbed Baal-Zaphon. Psalm 48:3 ( Heb 48:2 ), refers to Jerusalem together "the utmost heights the Zaphon is mount Zion, the city that the an excellent King." The poet has attracted on Canaanite imagery to enhance praise of the Lord.
Isaiah observed that ultimately the mountain of the Lord would be the goal of nations. In the last days "Many individuals will come and say, Come, let united state go approximately the mountain of the Lord"" ( 2:3 ). The word of the Lord will certainly go out from Jerusalem; nations will transform weapons into agricultural implements and men will certainly not learn war anymore. Climate Jerusalem shall end up being the city of tranquility indeed.
Ariel. "Ariel" occurs 5 times as the name of David"s city just in Isaiah 29. The an interpretation of the name is obscure. Perhaps it means "the hearth the God," contrasted to Ezekiel 43:15, or the "lion that God, " or, by a slight emendation, "the city that God." an additional emendation would certainly yield "the hill of God, " congruent with comparable references provided above.
Postexilic Jerusalem. The repair of the Jewish civilization to Jerusalem was decreed by the Persian ruler Cyrus adhering to his occupation of Babylon in 539 b.c. Sheshbazzar, a prince of Davidic descent, led the first group that exiles ago in 538 b.c., however there is no hints of the rejuvenation of the monarchy. Persian political policy dominated the returnees. Throughout this time a meager effort at rebuilding the holy place was undertaken. A second group that returnees arrived through Zerubbabel around 520 b.c. And also work ~ above the temple was increased through the prodding of the prophets Haggai and also Zechariah; the structure was completed and dedicated in 516 b.c. The city"s walls were rebuilt under Nehemiah"s leadership (ca. 445 b.c.). Ezra instituted religious reforms based on the "Book the the legislation of Moses, " more than likely the Pentateuch, which that brought earlier with that from Babylon ( neh 8:1 ).With this, the cult that Yahweh was fully reestablished in Jerusalem.
Jerusalem in the brand-new Testament. Brand-new Testament Jerusalem is Herodian Jerusalem, a city 4 centuries beyond the time the Ezra-Nehemiah. In those 4 hundred years, Jerusalem observed the demise of the Persian Empire and also the domination of the Greeks. Under the Ptolemaic dynasty of Egypt, the attractive influence of Greek culture affected Jerusalem and also its people, weakening religious devotion and practices particularly among the priestly judgment elite (cf. 1 Macc. 1:14). The Syrian Seleucid empire wrested manage of Jerusalem native the Egyptians in 198 b.c. Finally, after Antiochus IV desecrated the temple by sacrificing a hog top top the altar, devout Jews led by the Hasmonean household (Maccabees) rose in rebellion come reclaim Jerusalem in 164 b.c. The Hasmoneans attained political independence and also became a empire of priest-kings who ruled until Herod the good became king the Judea.
The Romans ended independent Jewish dominance in 63 b.c. They place Herod on the throne in37 b.c., and he began the greatest structure program Jerusalem had known. He built anew city wall, a theater and amphitheater, strong fields, and also a new palace. His repair of the temple and also the growth of its platform made that the crown jewel that Jerusalem. In ~ the very same time, the Dead Sea Scroll neighborhood who deemed the Jerusalem temple despised through God, contemplated a new Jerusalem, totally rebuilt as a divine City and also with a brand-new temple as its centerpiece (Temple Scroll). Herodian Jerusalem endured until the war v Rome in 66-70 a.d.; the city then endured siege and destruction. The is in the paper definition of Jerusalem prior to the destruction occurred that new Testament recommendations are set.
Jesus and Jerusalem. In the Synoptic Gospels Jerusalem is an initial mentioned in link with the birth story of Jesus: Zechariah"s vision in the temple ( Luke 1:5-23 ), the visit of the Magi ( Matt2:1-12 ), and also the presentation of the child Jesus ( Luke 2:22-38 ).Luke documents the visit of Jesus come the temple at age twelve ( 2:41-50 ), and also in fact new Testament references to Jerusalem are predominantly in Luke-Acts. Jesus is tempted by Satan in ~ the highest suggest of the temple just prior to the start of his to adjust in Galilee ( 4:9-13 ). Further, Luke records the "travel account" (9:51-19:27) in which Jesus to adjust his confront toward Jerusalem and also the inevitable events that to be to take place there for, together Jesus observed, "surely no prophet have the right to die exterior Jerusalem!" ( 13:33 ). Jerusalem and also the holy place symbolized the covenant in between God and his people, however the commitment relationship was askew. Luke records Jesus" tears and also sorrow end Jerusalem and also his prophecy that its destruction ( 19:41-44 ).
Jewish messianism had actually long suspect the return that a Davidic king come the city. The come of Jesus in Jerusalem top top Palm Sunday, defined in Luke 19, was regarded as a imperial procession by followers and adversaries alike. Jesus experienced that the holy place had come to be a commercial establishment rather 보다 a facility of spirituality. Through "cleansing"the holy place he reaffirmed its location of honor.
Jesus" function was to placed humanity ago in line v the will of God. Return the fulfillment that this duty through his death upon the cross to be to take it place outside the city, Jerusalem detailed the backdrop because that his Passion. Luke records many of the tasks of the last week: the critical Supper, the arraignment prior to the high priest, Peter"s denial, the trial prior to Pilate every took ar within Jerusalem. And some postresurrection appearances of Jesus took ar in Jerusalem ( 24:33-49 ) whereby his disciples were to await the resulting the holy Spirit ( 24:49 ). Luke"s Gospel closes with the contact of Jesus come preach in his surname to all nations "beginning at Jerusalem" ( 24:49 ).
Matthew recalls the sanctity of Jerusalem together the "holy city" ( 4:5 ), and Jesus describes it together "the city of the an excellent King" ( 5:35 ). The name"Zion" in Matthew refers to fulfilled prophecy ( 21:5 ; cf. Rom 11:26 ). Brand-new Testament referrals to Zion greatly recall Old testimony passages; however, the heavenly Jerusalem is established as Zion in Hebrews 12:22 and also Revelation 14:1.
Mark"s referrals to Jerusalem are set mainly in the passion narrative; however, he note the "massive stones" the the temple ( 13:1 ). All 3 Synoptic Gospels document the separating of the curtain in the Jerusalem temple during the crucifixion. The divine of Holies, the former center of covenant, was opened by this event to the brand-new covenant with Christ.
The Synoptics are greatly silent concerning any type of visits by Jesus to Jerusalem between childhood and his critical week, however the Gospel of man supplements the record in this respect. Follow to John, Jesus cleansed the temple beforehand in his ministry, adhering to the"first sign" in ~ Cana ( john 2:13-16 ).Jesus additionally attended the Feast the Tabernacles and taught in the holy place ( 7:14 ). And he cure the blind man at the pool of Siloam (chap. 9). The healing of the lame male at the swimming pool of Bethsaida is also recorded in man (chap. 5).
Paul and Jerusalem. Acts 1:4 notes that the apostles to be to wait for the promised gift of the father in Jerusalem, and the gospel began to be taught there (chap.2). In Jerusalem Stephen delineated the differences between Christianity and mainstream Judaism. The city was main to the beforehand Christian community, and also its leaders frequented the temple as a ar of prayer. In Jerusalem Paul got his commission come preach to the Gentiles ( 22:17-21 ).Paul remained in contact with the temple, praying ( 22:17 ) and also seeking purification there ( 24:18 ).Paul intended Gentile christians to determine with Jerusalem and also to build a feeling of kinship v the Jerusalem church. He proactively encouraged outlying churches to send assistance to the "poor among the saints in ~ Jerusalem" ( Rom 15:26 ).
The Heavenly Jerusalem. New Testament Christians organized the watch that there to be a city with structures whose architect and builder to be God ( Heb 11:10 ).Further, this was a heavenly Jerusalem "Mount Zion,
the city the the life God" ( 12:22 ).The populace would covers those whose names room written in heaven. The eschatological watch of Jerusalem that developed amongst Christians, next from the of Judaism (cf. Isa60:14 ), looked forward to the fulfillment the the promise the the kingdom in the facility of a brand-new Jerusalem that would come "down the end of heaven from God" ( Rev 21:2 ). This city is defined in comparison to the city allegorically called Sodom and Egypt, the is, the earthly Jerusalem, "where also their lord was crucified" ( Rev 11:8 ).
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The Bible begins with a bucolic setting in the Garden that Eden; it close the door on an city scene, and also that city is the brand-new Jerusalem. For Christians, the identification of earthly Jerusalem as the dwelling ar of God, which figures so frequently in the Old Testament, has actually been transformed into a heavenly Jerusalem, the true sanctuary of the mr (cf. Festival 4:26 ; Heb 12:22-29 ).Nevertheless, believer have constantly been attracted to the earthly Jerusalem, as have Jews and Muslims, for it has actually retained through the centuries its duty as the center of the 3 monotheistic religions.
Keith N. Schoville
See alsobrand-new Jerusalem
Bibliography. M. Barker, The door of Heaven: The history and Symbolism that the temple in Jerusalem; G. A. Barrois, IDB, 4:959-60; M. Burrows, IDB, 2:843-66;R. E. Clements, Isaiah and also the Deliverance that Jerusalem; P. J. King, ABD, 4:747-66;W. H. Mare, ABD, 6:1096-97; idem, The Archaeology the the Jerusalem Area; B. C. Ollenburger, Zion the City that the an excellent King; J. Simons, Jerusalem in the Old Testament; P. W. L. Walker, Jerusalem: Past and also Present in the objectives of God.