When Hillary Clinton was chosen to the U.S. Senate in 2001, she ended up being the very first American very first lady to success a public office seat. In 2016, she ended up being the first woman in U.S. History to become the presidential nominee of a significant political party.

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Who Is Hillary Clinton?

Hillary Clinton to be born in Chicago and also went on come earn her law level from Yale University. She married fellow law college graduate Bill Clinton in 1975. She later on served as first lady indigenous 1993 come 2001, and also then as a U.S. Senator indigenous 2001 to 2009. In early 2007, Clinton announced her plans to run for the presidency. Throughout the 2008 autonomous primaries, she conceded the nomination once it became evident that Barack Obama organized a majority of the delegate vote. After winning the national election, Obama appointed Clinton secretary that state. She was sworn in as component of his cabinet in January 2009 and also served until 2013. In the spring of 2015, she announced she plans to run again for the U.S. Presidency. In 2016, she came to be the an initial woman in U.S. Background to end up being the presidential nominee of a major political party. After a polarizing campaign versus GOP candidate Donald Trump, Clinton was beat in the general election the November.

Early Life

Hillary to be born Hillary Diane Rodham on October 26, 1947, in Chicago, Illinois. She was elevated in Park Ridge, Illinois, a it s as beautiful as picture suburb situated 15 miles northwest the downtown Chicago.

Hillary was the eldest daughter that Hugh Rodham, a prosperous cloth store owner, and also Dorothy Emma Howell Rodham; she has two younger brothers, Hugh Jr. (born in 1950) and also Anthony (born in 1954).

As a young woman, Hillary was active in young Republican groups and campaigned because that Republican presidential nominee Barry Goldwater in 1964. She was influenced to work-related in public service after hearing a speech in Chicago by the Reverend martin Luther King Jr., and became a Democrat in 1968.

Education and Early Career

Hillary attend Wellesley College, wherein she was energetic in student politics and elected senior class president prior to graduating in 1969. She then attended Yale law School, whereby she met bill Clinton. Graduating through honors in 1973, she walk on come enroll in ~ Yale son Study Center, whereby she took courses on children and also medicine and completed one post-graduate year that study.

Hillary functioned at miscellaneous jobs throughout her summers together a college student. In 1971, she very first came come Washington, D.C. To job-related on U.S. City council Walter Mondale's sub-committee ~ above migrant workers. In the summer of 1972, she worked in the western states for the project of autonomous presidential nominee George McGovern.

In the spring of 1974, Hillary came to be a member that the presidential impeachment inspection staff, advising the Judiciary Committee that the house of Representatives during the Watergate Scandal. 

After chairman Richard M. Nixon resigned in August, she ended up being a faculty member that the university of Arkansas legislation School in Fayetteville, whereby her Yale law School classmate and boyfriend bill was teaching as well.

Marriage to bill Clinton

Hillary married bill on October 11, 1975, in ~ their residence in Fayetteville. Prior to he proposed marriage, Bill had secretly purchase a little house the she had actually remarked that she liked. When he proposed marital relationship to her and she accepted, the revealed the they own the house. Their daughter, Chelsea Victoria, was born ~ above February 27, 1980. 

In 1976, Clinton worked on Jimmy Carter's successful project for president her husband Clinton was chosen attorney general. Bill was chosen governor in 1978 at period 32, shed reelection in 1980, yet came earlier to success in 1982, 1984, 1986 (when the term of office was expanded from two to 4 years) and also 1990.

Clinton joined the Rose regulation Firm in tiny Rock and, in 1977, was appointed come part-time chairman that the Legal services Corporation by chairman Carter. As very first lady of the state because that a dozen year (1979-1981, 1983-1992), she chaired the Arkansas Educational standards Committee, co-founded the Arkansas advocates for Children and also Families, and served on the plank of the Arkansas Children's Hospital, Arkansas legitimate Services and the Children's Defense Fund. She additionally served on the boards of TCBY and Wal-Mart.

In 1988 and 1991, The National legislation Journal called her among the 100 most an effective lawyers in America.


First Lady

During she husband's 1992 presidential campaign, Clinton emerged as a dynamic and valued companion of her husband, and as president, he called her come head the Task pressure on National wellness Reform (1993). The controversial commission produced a complex plan i beg your pardon never involved the floor of either house. The was exit in September 1994.

During this period, she and also her husband invested in the Whitewater real estate project. The project's bank, Morgan Guaranty Savings and Loan, failed, costing the federal government $73 million. Whitewater later came to be the subject of congressional hearings and also an independent counsel investigation.

In 1998, the White house was engulfed in the Monica Lewinsky sex scandal. Despite she publicly supported her husband, Hillary reportedly taken into consideration leaving she marriage. He to be impeached, however the U.S. Senate failed to convict and also he remained in office.

Senate Win and also Presidential Run

In 1999, Clinton decided she would seek the U.S. Senate chair from new York hosted by Daniel Patrick Moynihan, who was retiring after 4 terms. Despite early problems and charges the carpetbagging, Clinton beat famous Republican rick Lazio by a surprisingly broad margin: 55 percent come 43 percent. Clinton became the first wife of a chairman to seek and win publicly office and the first woman to be chosen to the U.S. Senate from new York. She conveniently won reelection in November 2006.

In early on 2007, Clinton announced her plans to strive for one more first—to be the an initial female president. Throughout the 2008 democratic primaries, senator Clinton conceded the nomination once it became evident that nominee Barack Obama held a bulk of the delegate vote. When Clinton suspended she campaign, she do a speech to her supporters. "Although we were not able come shatter the highest and hardest glass ceiling this time, many thanks to you it has actually 18 million cracks in it," she said, "and the light is shining with like never ever before, filling us all with the hope and the sure understanding that the course will be a little easier next time, and also we room going to store working to do it so, today store with me and stand for me, us still have actually so much to perform together, we made history, and lets make some more."

U.S. Secretary of State

Shortly after winning the U.S. Presidential election, Obama nominated Clinton together secretary of state. She welcomed the nomination and was officially approved together the 67th U.S. Secretary of state by the Senate ~ above January 21, 2009.

During she term, Clinton used her place to make women's rights and human civil liberties a main talking point of U.S. Initiatives. She became one of the many traveled secretaries of state in American history, and promoted the usage of society media to convey the country's positions. She likewise led U.S. Diplomatic efforts in connection to the Arab Spring and also military intervention in Libya.

The State Department, under Clinton's leadership, come under investigation after a deadly strike on a U.S. Diplomatic short article in Benghazi, Libya, eliminated U.S. Ambassador Christopher Stevens and three others on September 11, 2012. An independent dashboard issued a report about the Benghazi attack, which found "systematic failures and also leadership and also management deficiencies" at the State Department.

Health Issues

Clinton, who stated she took responsibility for security at the outpost in Benghazi, was scheduled to testify around the strike before conference in December 2012. She canceled her scheduled testimony, however, citing a stomach virus and, later, a concussion the she experienced after fainting (the cause of which was later on reported together dehydration). Part members the Congress questioned the timing of her illnesses, including Representative Allen West, who declared that he thought the secretary the state was enduring from "a case of Benghazi flu" on the work she was booked to testify.

On December 30, 2012, Clinton was hospitalized v a blood clot regarded the concussion that she had suffered earlier in the month. She to be released from a new York hospital ~ above January 2, 2013, ~ receiving treatment, and soon recovered and returned to work.

Benghazi Testimony and also Resignation

Clinton testified about the Benghazi attack on January 23, 2013. Speak to members of the House foreign Relations Committee, she protected her actions if taking full responsibility because that the incident, i m sorry killed 4 American citizens. "As I have said many times due to the fact that September 11, ns take responsibility, and also nobody is an ext committed to acquiring this right," she called the House. She added, "I am determined to leave the State Department and our country safer, stronger and more secure."

After taking office in 2009, she repeatedly stated that she was only interested in serving one term together secretary the state. She stepped under from her post on February 1, 2013.

In might 2014, the House pick Committee ~ above Benghazi, chaired through Representative Trey Gowdy from southern Carolina, was created to investigate the Benghazi attack. Clinton testified in former of the committee top top October 22, 2015, in a virtually 11-hour hearing. The House choose Committee ~ above Benghazi approve its last report top top June 28, 2016. The simply over 800-page report discovered no new evidence that wrongdoing on she part, however was critical of "government agencies favor the Defense Department, the central Intelligence agency and the State room — and the officials who led them — because that failing to understand the acute security threats in the Libyan city, and especially for keeping outposts in Benghazi the they could not protect," follow to The new York Times.

The democrats on the committee issued their very own 339-page minority report the criticized Republicans because that "one that the longest and most partisan conference investigations in history" the took two years come complete and cost "$7 million in taxpayer funds." 

"We have actually been hampered in our job-related by the continuous Republican obsession v conspiracy theory that have actually no communication in reality," the decimal report stated. "Rather than disapprove these conspiracy theory in the lack of proof — or in the confront of difficult facts — select Committee Republicans embraced them and turned them into a political crusade."

Mother-in-Law and Grandmother

In 2010, the Clintons' daughter Chelsea married previous Goldman Sachs invest banker and also current hedge fund manager Marc Mezvinksy.

On September 26, 2014, Clinton became a first-time grandmother as soon as daughter Chelsea provided birth come Charlotte Clinton Mezvinsky. Chelsea provided birth come her second child, Aidan Clinton Mezvinsky, ~ above June 18, 2016, and to boy Jasper Clinton Mezvinsky on July 22, 2019.

Bid because that 2016 Presidency

After much speculation and also assumptions over whether she would run for the U.S. Presidency, Clinton's plans to be made main in the spring of 2015. Top top April 12, her campaign chairperson john D. Podesta announced via email that the previous secretary the state was entering the race to certain the democratic presidential nomination because that the 2016 elections. This was immediately followed by an online campaign clip, with Clinton herself announcing the she was to run for president.

Campaign Issues

On her campaign site, Clinton addressed a wide variety of issues: lowering college student debt, criminal righteousness reform, campaign finance reform, improving the healthcare coverage and costs the the Affordable treatment Act (a.k.a. Obamacare), and also women's rights. 

However, the candidate was additionally known because that her transforming stances on assorted hot switch issues, including her evolving assistance of happy marriage and her souring ~ above the Trans Pacific Partnership. In regard come the environment, Clinton had actually a plan to combat climate adjust but likewise faced inquiries from eco-friendly activists for supporting fracking. She also supported the death penalty yet claimed it need to be applied in impressive cases.

Email Scandal

In at an early stage March 2015, Clinton confronted controversy and also criticism as soon as it was revealed that she had used her personal email resolve to manage official governmental service during her time together secretary of state. In a news conference organized at the united Nations, speaking at first on sex equality and the political situation in Iran, Clinton declared that she had utilized her personal email for convenience as permitted by state room protocol. She later on turned over all governmental correspondence to the Obama administration while deleting messages that could be understood as personal. 

In may 2016, the State room issued a statement concerning Clinton's recurring email scandal. The room criticized she for not seeking permission to use a personal email server and likewise stated it would certainly not have approved that if she had. The 79-page report, in addition to a different FBI investigation and also other legal matters that connected her private email account, exacerbated Clinton's controversial political reputation and also became fodder because that Republican officials.

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After a year-long FBI examination of Clinton’s email techniques while she was secretary of state, FBI director James Comey announced on July 5, 2016, the the agency would no recommend criminal charges versus Clinton. “Our judgment is that no reasonable prosecutor would lug such a case,” Comey stated at a news conference. The added: ”Although us did not discover clear evidence that Secretary Clinton or her colleagues intended to violate laws governing the handling of the classified information, over there is evidence that lock were incredibly careless in their dealing with of really sensitive, very classified information."

The complying with day Attorney basic Loretta Lynch exit a explain saying that she would certainly accept the FBI’s recommendation and also Clinton would certainly not be fee in the case. “Late this afternoon, ns met through FBI director James Comey and also career prosecutors and also agents who conducted the examination of Secretary Hillary Clinton’s usage of a an individual email system throughout her time together Secretary the State,” Lynch wrote in the statement. “I received and accepted your unanimous referral that the thorough, year-long investigation be closed and that no charges be brought against any people within the scope of the investigation.”

Clinton’s email troubles resurfaced on October 28, 2016, when Comey revealed in a letter come Congress the while investigating disgraced previous Congressman Anthony Weiner for texts he had actually sent to a 15-year-old girl, legislation enforcement public official had uncovered emails that showed up “to be pertinent” come the closed investigation of Clinton’s usage of a an individual email server. The emails were apparently sent through Huma Abedin, Weiner’s wife and Clinton’s optimal aide, come Clinton’s an individual server, yet the contents of the emails to be unknown.

The timing of Comey’s letter, simply 11 days before the election, was unprecedented and critics referred to as for the FBI come release an ext information. A bipartisan team of practically one hundred previous federal prosecutors and also Justice room officials also signed a letter criticizing Comey. “We can not recall a prior circumstances where a senior Justice Department main — Republican or Democrat — has, on the eve of a major election, authorize a public statement whereby the just disclosure of details may influence the election’s outcome, however the official acknowledges the details to it is in examined might not be significant or new,” the letter stated.