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According come Jewish tradition, the original Jerusalem temple was ordained through Yahweh/God, as explained in 2 Samuel 7:12 where Yahweh regulates Nathan come tell David:

once your days space fulfilled and also you lie down v your ancestors, I will raise up your offspring after you, that shall come forth from her body, and I will create his kingdom. That shall build a residence for mine name, and also I will create the throne that his kingdom forever.

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As well together the postexilic text, 1 Chronicles 28:2-7, wherein David declares:


I had planned to construct a home of remainder for the ark that the covenant of the Lord, for the footstool of ours God; and I made preparations for building. Yet God claimed to me, "You chandelier not develop a residence for mine name, for you space a warrior and also have shed blood"…He stated to me, "It is your child Solomon who shall construct my house and my courts, for I have actually chosen that to be a kid to me, and also I will certainly be a dad to him. Ns will establish his kingdom forever if he continues resolute in keeping my commandments and also my ordinances, together he is today."

Socio-economic background

The building of the very first Temple period significant a shift from nomadic or migrant come a settled and developed lifestyle. The Israelite, or Judean, neighborhood was no longer mobile, and therefore, the portability of the Tabernacle was no much longer a priority. Not only was the neighborhood no much longer mobile but a monarchy was also established, representing a far-ranging transition in the political and also socio-economic method of life. Interesting way enough, within close proximity come the holy place a royal residence was established, architecturally symbolizing come the Israelites the Yahweh was working with the king. In a sense, the Temple came to be the king"s "private chapel", presenting the temple as one elitist type of worship, a principle that to be strengthened through the strength of the emerging priestly class.

Location


First and second Temple Judaism was a religion of sacrifice, and also it remained in the holy place that such techniques were enacted.

The ar of the temple was not selected by chance yet was rather erected on a site of an excellent significance within the biblical tradition: mount Moriah. It was upon mount Moriah the Abraham was commanded to lug his son, Isaac, as a sacrifice to his God. His devotion ensured, God saved Isaac and created his agreement with Abraham (Gen. 22). In a rather poetic manner, the establishment of the temple on this location shows up to make complete sense. First and second Temple Judaism to be a religion of sacrifice, and also it was in the temple that such methods were enacted. The reality that the temple was created on the same location that the Judeans thought Abraham almost sacrificed his very own son was surely no coincidence, and indeed this was specifically the message that the Judeans sought come create. Instead, the structure was most likely established before Gen. 22 was recorded, do the text an effort to legitimize the location, and therefore, the establishment of the Temple. All in all, the building and the text space to be taken as representing two components of a facility system of sanctification and also legitimization by the ar in order come rationalize the shift from a migratory and also mobile form of prayer to among alleged permanence.


Terminology

Although the holy place is referred to as a solitary institution here, that is crucial to keep in mind that the Jerusalem holy place was rebuilt at the very least three times in antiquity. The an initial was set up under Solomon, as is described in great detail within 1 majesties 5-6, around during the 10th century BCE. The 2nd was developed by returning exiles in approximately 515 BCE, while the third, and most elaborate, was emerged under Herod in approximately 19-9 BCE, although it continued to be under renovations till its destruction in 70 CE. Generally, the Temple developed by the return exiles and also Herod"s Temple space conflated in scholarship and referred to together simply, the "Second Temple", or the "Second holy place period". Although the physical attributes described will certainly refer to second Temple evidence, the ax "Temple" here will stand for all 3 as that is the general establishment of the school that is of interest rather than the architectural differences between all three.

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Worship & sacrifice

As the Temple became the facility of worship through sacrifice play an important, also crucial, role within ancient Judaism, laws and also obligations were developed in order come accommodate sacrificial requirements implemented on the Judean community, both within old Palestine and in the Diaspora. Both the publication of Exodus and Deuteronomy attest to three mandatory pilgrimages: Pesach, Shavuot, and also Sukkot.


Three times a year all her males shall show up before the Lord your God at the location that he will choose: in ~ the festival of unleavened bread, at the festival that weeks, and also at the festival that booths. Castle shall not appear before the mr empty-handed; all shall provide as they are able, according to the blessing of the Lord your God that he has offered you (Deut. 16:16-17).

Three time in the year girlfriend shall hold a festival because that me… no one shall show up before me empty-handed…Three times in the year all her males shall appear before the lord God (Exodus 23:14-17).

These passages suggest that not just were plot of pilgrimage required yet so to be tithes and also sacrificial offerings together is demonstrated in Deuteronomy 16:6.

ringing there your burnt offerings and your sacrifices, your tithes and your donations, your votive gifts, her freewill offerings, and the firstlings of her herds and flocks.

Such passages show the significant economic role the temple played in the ancient world. With huge influxes the pilgrims, establishments such together hostels, public mikva"ot, money changers, and also so on, would have occurred in Jerusalem in order to accommodate and also meet the needs of the people travelling to keep sacrificial requirements.


Architectural design

The sacrificial methods that occurred within the temple were reflected in the architecture design, through the department of the temple platform right into two separate courts: the Outercourt (non-Judean and also Judean granted access), and also the Innercourt (only Judeans granted access). The Innercourt to be then separated into three smaller courts including the Court the Priests, which included the Temple and also altar, and also the Court that Israel, and the Court the Women. As a result, praise was sexually segregated and accessibility to the holy of Holies was permitted only to the High Priest. As the Innercourt was easily accessible only to the Judeans, the temple was marked as a room for Israelites alone, thereby demarcating the boundary of the Judean ethnos (people).

The finish of the temple period

Although access to the old synagogue was not limited to the Judeans alone, numerous of the temple rituals were transferred to the synagogue adhering to the destruction of the holy place in 70 CE. Rituals such as the punch of the shofar and also the waving of the lulav throughout Sukkot were exercised within the synagogue, preserving the holy place traditions as well as a ritualistic facet of holy place Judaism. While sacrifice was only permitted in the Temples, generations following the destruction of the holy place sought compromises and also adaptations in bespeak to maintain their social and ritualistic heritage, and in many situations the synagogue provided a method of continuity.

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Editorial ReviewThis short article has been reviewed for accuracy, reliability and adherence to academic standards before publication.

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