The U.S. Naval basic at Pearl harbor on Oahu Island, Hawaii, was attacked by the Japanese top top December 7, 1941.
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President Franklin D. Roosevelt speaking to congress on December 8, 1941 stated “Yesterday, December 7, 1941—a date which will live in infamy—the United states of America to be suddenly and deliberately assaulted by naval and also air forces of the realm of Japan.”
TIMELINE the the strike on Pearl harbor on December 7, 1941At 6:10 AM, Minesweeper USS Condor sights a periscopeAt 6:10 AM, the first wave of plane took turn off from Japanese plane carriers, approximately 200 miles north that Oahu.At 6:45 AM, the an initial shots fired by the USS Ward in ~ a Japanese submarine. These to be the first shots fired by the United states in civilization War II.At 6:53 AM, USS Ward radios marine headquarters but the decoding procedure delays the message.At 7:02 AM, A radar terminal on Oahu spots unidentified plane heading towards Hawaii.At 7:20 AM, army lieutenant disregards this radar report since he believes it is a flight of U.S. B-17 bombers coming from California.At 7:40 AM, the very first wave the Japanese plane reaches Oahu.At 7:49 AM, the Japanese aerial command orders the assault on Pearl Harbor.At 7:55 AM, the Coordinated strike on Pearl harbor begins.At 8:10 AM, the USS Arizona explodes.At 8:17 AM, the Destroyer USS Helm fires at and also sinks Japanese submarine in ~ entrance to harbor.At 8:54 AM, the 2nd wave of attack begins.At 9:30 AM, the USS shaw explodes in dry dock.At 10:00 AM, Japanese planes head back to carriers and ultimately back to Japan.
JAPAN’S AERIAL attack FORCEJapan’s aerial attacking force at Pearl Harbor connected 353 planes, 29 that those plane were shed in the attack. Japan’s fleet consist of of some 67 ships was located about 200 mile north the Oahu.Only one ship the participated in the attack on Pearl Harbor endured through the end of people War II.
MAP DESCRIPTION:Locator map the Oahu as part of the Hawaii islandsMap that Oahu reflecting the direction of the very first and second waves of attack by the Japanese towards Pearl Harbor.Map that Pearl Harbor with Ford Island in the center showing where every one of the United claims ships to be docked and the direction of the trip paths of Japan’s strike squadrons
Map likewise shows which ships to be damaged:U.S. Ships that were a complete loss: Arizona, Oklahoma, UtahU.S. Ships damaged and repaired: Curtiss, Raleigh, Nevada, Vestal, West Virginia, Tennessee, Maryland, California, Oglala, Helena, Shaw, Cassin, Downes, Pennsylvania, HonoluluBattleships USS Arizona and USS Oklahoma in addition to former battleship, now target delivery USS Utah were a total loss and also never returned to service. USS West Virginia to be the only ship attacked at Pearl Harbor current during Japan’s officially surrender top top September 2, 1945.
THE AFTERMATHA full of 2,404 United says military and also civilians were killed, 1,177 were killed aboard the USS Arizona and also 68 civilians to be killed. A complete of 64 Japanese military were eliminated with one taken prisoner15 United says Navy personnel received the Medal of Honor and 51 got the marine Cross. The Pearl harbor Commemorative Medal to be later given to all armed forces veterans the the attack.
Sources: Naval history and heritage Command, nationwide WWII Museum
The relationship in between Japan and the united States had soured in the year leading as much as Pearl Harbor. This started with the Japanese intrusion of Manchuria in 1931, an development throughout the Chinese mainland that resulted in the second Sino-Japanese war between China and also Japan in 1937. Japan then joined the Berlin, or Tripartite Pact, creating an alliance with Germany and Italy in 1940.
The battle in Europe had actually opened up strategic methods for the Japanese occupation of European early american holdings, such as French-Indo China, brother Malaysia and Singapore, dutch Indonesia and the Philippines.
Following the invasion of French-Indo China in 1941, the U.S. Froze Japanese heritage in the united States and declared an embargo on petroleum shipments. U.S. Oil accounted for eighty percent that Japan’s oil imports at the time. By so late 1941, the unified States had severed practically all commercial and financial connections with Japan.
Japanese armed forces strategy was based upon the peculiar location of the Pacific Ocean and also on the relative weakness that Allied military presence there. The western half of the Pacific is dotted with plenty of islands, while the eastern half of the ocean is virtually devoid of land masses and hence, usable bases except for Hawaii.
The British, French, American, and Dutch military pressures in the whole Pacific region west of Hawaii price to only about 350,000 troops. Ally air power in the Pacific to be weak and consisted greatly of useless planes.
The Japanese thought they might quickly launch coordinated strikes from their existing bases on particular Pacific islands and also overwhelm the allied forces, to plan to develop a strong fortified defensive perimeter. They thought that any kind of American and British respond to offenses versus this perimeter might be repelled, after i beg your pardon those countries would at some point seek a negotiated tranquility that would allow Japan to keep this newly acquired empire.
On the morning that December 7th, at 6:10 AM, the very first wave of Japanese planes launched. At 6:45 AM, the USS Ward spotted and open fired on a Japanese submarine turn off the coastline of Hawaii. In ~ 6:53 AM, the Ward reported sinking the sub, yet decoding the message took time. In ~ 7:02 AM, a radar station on Oahu spotted unidentified aircraft heading in the direction of the island. However, radar solution were much less than a month old, and also the sublieutenant who received the warning believed it to be a false alarm. By 7:40 AM, the an initial wave of Japanese aircraft had actually reached Oahu, having averted American at an early stage warning systems. Soon thereafter, the Japanese aerial command ordered the attack.
The Japanese aircraft flew in two waves. The an initial wave struck airfields and also anti-air defenses ~ above the west side of the island, if the second wave, almost an hour later, focused on the eastern side. Both tide met over Pearl Harbor.
In the harbor, anchored ships do perfect targets for the Japanese bombers. Many of the damages to the battleships arisen in the very first thirty minute of the assault. The Arizona was totally destroyed and the Oklahoma capsized. The California, Nevada and West Virginia sank in shallow water. However, the Pacific fleet’s 3 aircraft carriers were at sea during the attack, and also the Japanese failure to ruin the essential oil storage infrastructure on the island. All however two the the battleships were returned to business during the war, and overall U.S. Marine strategy in the Pacific change to depend on plane carriers over battleships together a result.
Japan’s fleet that 67 ships to be located about 200 mile north the Oahu. They launched dive bombers, torpedo bombers and fighter planes. There to be 353 Japanese aircraft involved in the attack, 29 that which were shot down. Just one Japanese ship that participated endured to the end of the war.
In total, 2,404 U.S. Armed forces personnel and civilians to be killed. 1,177 the those casualties to be aboard one ship–the USS Arizona, where an armor-piercing bomb struck and ignited end a million pounds that gunpowder in ~ the ship. Sixty-eight civilians were additionally killed.
After the battle, fifteen individuals were forgive the Medal the Honor and fifty-one to be awarded a navy Cross for their actions in battle. The complying with day, chairman Franklin Delano Roosevelt addressed the unified States, and also the U.S. Congress claimed war versus Japan. 3 days later, Germany and Italy claimed war on the unified States. And the previously reluctant nation entered the 2nd World War.
The strike on Pearl harbor is attributed with uniting the U.S. Populace behind the war effort. The is estimated that between 35 and also 65 million people died during the second World War, including civilians eliminated as a an outcome of war, those that passed away from disease, and those killed throughout the Holocaust.
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The second World War brought about the expansion of the Soviet Union’s strength throughout eastern Europe, the spread out of communism to China, the introduction of nuclear weapons, and the decisive shift of world power far from the claims of western Europe and also toward the joined States and Soviet Union.