Born Rosa Louise McCauley, February 4, 1913, in Tuskegee, AL; died of herbal causes, October 24, 2005, in Detroit, MI. Civil civil liberties activist. Rosa Parks was ideal known for she act of civil disobedience in December the 1955 as soon as she refused to provide up she seat ~ above a bus come white man in Montgomery, Alabama. She arrest caused a can be fried Court decision the segregation top top such develops of public transportation was illegal, sparking the polite Rights activity in the 1950s and 1960s. Parks was regarded as a hero and also spent the totality of she life together a confront of the movement. Top top her death Rev. Jesse Jackson called E.R. Shipp the the new York time , "She sat under in order that we can stand up. Paradoxically, she imprisonment opened the doors because that our long journey to freedom."

Parks was the first of two kids born to James and Leona (Edwards) McCauley. She parents to be farmers who hosted other jobs as well. She father functioned as a carpenter when her mother was additionally a teacher. One ill child, Parks' parents separated when she to be young and her mom raised her and her brothers on her maternal grandparents' farm yard in pine Level, Alabama. Parks obtained her early education in ~ a blacks-only one-room schoolhouse where classes were only held for five months a year so the students could work the fields. Violence against African Americans, consisting of lynchings and also burnings, to be a component of her life, as the Ku Klux Klan was active in the area.

an aunt lived in Montgomery, Alabama, wherein Parks began attending colleges at the age of eleven. Though she attended miss White's institution for girls in Montgomery and also the Montgomery commercial School for Girls, Parks' education and learning at the Alabama State teachers College to be cut short when she left school at 16 to take treatment of she ailing grandmother. To assist support her family, she learned just how to kind and absorbed sewing.

In 1932, Parks married Raymond Parks, a barber, that was energetic in the Civil legal rights movement. Parks became politically energetic as well. She was a member that the national Association because that the advance of Colored world (NAACP) and was serving together the secretary of the thing in Montgomery, Alabama, by 1943. Together a member that the Montgomery Voters' League, Parks also helped blacks happen the tests essential for lock to it is registered to vote. It took her 3 attempts to happen the check herself.

through the mid-1950s, Parks was functioning as a seamstress in ~ the Montgomery Fair room store and as a housekeeper because that a white couple, Clifford and also Virginia Durr. The 1955 incident which thrust the civil Rights motion forward was born that Parks' own exhaustion from the gyeongju segregation she faced in everyday life in Alabama utilizing black-only elevators, water fountains, and also schools. It additionally showed the strength of non-violent action and made she a nationwide figure. Parks was liked to be a symbol for the cause due to the fact that she was a design citizen in Montgomery.

after refusing to provide up she seat on the December job coming house from work, Parks to be taken into custody and fined $14. She was at some point convicted of violating distinction laws, however did not accept the situation. With the accuse of civil rights lawyers, she helped challenge the laws which allowed such segregation. The event sparked a 13-month boycott that the buses in Montgomery by african Americans arranged by Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. And also the Montgomery improvement Association. In 1956, the can be fried Court declared this form of segregation illegal.

if Parks' arrest and the subsequent situation were of prestige nationally and also historically, the incident and its aftermath had a an unfavorable affect on her instant life. She to be dismissed from she job, got threats, and also was hassled as were plenty of who sustained the bus boycott and also the Civil legal rights movement. Her health and wellness was additionally negatively affected. In addition, Parks had some disagreements with leader of the motion in Montgomery including King. In 1957, she and also her husband left Alabama and also moved first to Virginia and also later to Detroit, Michigan, v Parks' mother.

In Detroit, Parks supported herself again first by act sewing in her house for a number of years. In 1965, Parks to be hired by john Conyers, a Detroit-area Congressman, to it is in his aide, a place she held until 1988. As Parks became regarded together an important, inspirational number in the civil civil liberties movement, she used her position to raise funds for the NAACP and also continue to push for better racial equality.

In 1987, Parks co-founded the Rosa and also Raymond Parks Institute for Self-Development. The group sponsored number of programs to educate about the Civil civil liberties Movement. In spite of her fame, she quiet suffered. In 1994, she was mugged by a 28-year-old male for $53 in her very own home. In spite of such setbacks, Parks received many honors for she life, consisting of the Presidential Medal of freedom in 1996 and also the congressional Medal of respect in 1999.

through 2002, Parks was experiencing from dementia and also faced some financial difficulties. Parks could not pay her rent and also relied top top a neighborhood church to cover the costs for a time. Such troubles did not adjust her importance. Conyers called Patricia Sullivan of the Washington post upon Parks' death, "There room very couple of people who can say your actions and also conduct changed the challenge of the nation, and Rosa Parks is one of those individuals." Parks died on October 24, 2005, at the period of 92.


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As her husband died in 1977 and also the marriage was childless, she has actually no survivors in her instant family.