Due to geographical proximity and also sizable Puerto Rican communities already present in the state, Florida has become a primary destination for in-migrants indigenous Puerto Rico in recent years. Following a brief exposition of decennial census counts because that 2000 and 2010, this write-up examines various elements of Puerto Rican populace growth in Florida – and also for some various other states – focusing specifically on migration patterns; we also discuss some county-level patterns. The primary data source we usage in this article includes 1-year estimates from the American community Survey (ACS) native 2005 come 2016 and also data native the 1-year Public usage Microdata Sample (PUMS) papers of the ACS because that those years. Us close v comments about recent inflows indigenous Puerto Rico come Florida adhering to Hurricane Maria.

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Table 1. Puerto Rican populace in the unified States, Puerto Rico, and the Top 5 States

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Table 1 shows that the variety of Puerto Ricans life in the joined State has actually increased by about 1.2 million (36%) between 2000 and also 2010, if it diminished slightly in Puerto Rico. Because that comparison, Table 1 also displays the 1-year ACS approximates for 2010; while no identical, the 2010 1-year ACS approximates are usually quite close to the 2010 decennial census counts. For the united States, the 2000–2010 trend continued in 2010–2016, v the Puerto Rican populace growing by one more 750,000 (16%). The population declines accelerated in Puerto Rico, through the island’s population shrinking by about 300,000 (8%) since 2010. Among states, new York still has the biggest resident populace of Puerto Ricans, however it has hardly readjusted since 2000. In contrast, the Puerto Rican population living in Florida has grown rapidly since 2000, increasing by about 365,000 (76%) from 2000 come 2010, and by an additional 200,000 (24%) from 2010 come 2016. Other states with sizeable Puerto Rican populaces include brand-new Jersey, Pennsylvania, and also Massachusetts; in every three states the Puerto Rican population increased more rapidly than in brand-new York, though not as rapid as in Florida. Through 2016, about 3.38 million Puerto Ricans resided in the peak 5 states, representing around 62% of every Puerto Ricans living on the U.S. Mainland (the reduced 48 states), Alaska, and Hawaii.

The bottom panel of Table 1 reflects the share of the Puerto Rican population of total population and that the hispanic population. In between 2000 and also 2016, the Puerto Rican share of total population increased for the country overall as well as in Florida, Massachusetts, new Jersey, and Pennsylvania; it showed small change in brand-new York. The Puerto Rican re-publishing of the Hispanic populace increased just in Florida; the stayed about the exact same nationwide, and decreased in the other four states. The decreasing share of Puerto Ricans among all spain in new York, brand-new Jersey, Pennsylvania, and also Massachusetts typical that other Hispanic origin groups flourished comparatively quicker than the Puerto Rican population in those states.

 

Inflows from Puerto Rico

We next examine the hike destinations the Puerto Ricans who moved to the United states mainland between 2005 and 2016. Number 1 displays the average yearly flows native Puerto Rico to each state end that period and offers us a photo of the geographical dispersal that the Puerto Rican migrants. Florida attractive the largest inflow indigenous Puerto Rico. Other states with large inflows incorporate several Northeastern claims (New York, brand-new Jersey, Pennsylvania, and also Massachusetts), and also Texas. In general, states east of the Mississippi recorded bigger inflows 보다 those in the west U.S., reflecting geographical proximity and earlier settlement patterns the the Puerto Rican population stateside.

 

Figure 1. Average annual Inflows from Puerto Rico to the Continental joined States, 2005–2016

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As displayed in Table 2, Florida’s share (29%) that the total inflow from Puerto Rico to the unified States between 2005 and also 2016 much exceeded the of any kind of other state. In fact, Florida’s re-superstructure was nearly as big as the an unified inflows to brand-new York, Pennsylvania, Texas, and also Massachusetts. New York still has actually the largest population of Puerto Ricans ~ above the mainland (see Table 1). However, due to the fact that of the lot faster expansion of the Puerto Rican population living in Florida, and that of several various other states, new York’s re-publishing of Puerto Ricans living in the unified States has actually been declining over time, from about 31% in 2000 come 20% through 2016 (data not shown). Given these trends, it is possible that the 2017 ACS 1-year estimates, which are reserved to be released in the autumn of 2018, will present that Florida has come to be the state v the largest Puerto Rican populace living top top the mainland (see likewise the discussion about Hurricane Maria below).

 

Table 2. The optimal 10 location States because that Migrants native Puerto Rico come the joined States, 2005–2016

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Next, we focus in much more detail ~ above the migration operation from Puerto Rico to Florida. Figure 2 depicts the annual inflows native Puerto Rico come Florida in between 2005 and also 2016; these ranged from around 11,400 in 2005 come 24,000 in 2016, peaking at just over 31,000 in 2014. Although the 1-year ACS approximates fluctuate indigenous year come year, the in its entirety trend is upwards. In addition, the figure shows Florida’s share of total inflows to the United says from Puerto Rico; it ranged indigenous 24% (in 2010) come 36% (in 2014) over the period.

 

Figure 2. Annual Inflows from Puerto Rico come Florida, 2005–2016

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Figure 3 provides clear that migrants indigenous Puerto Rico predominantly settled in central and south Florida; the bulk of counties in north Florida, in contrast, got fewer than 100 migrants on median per year. In fact, an ext than two thirds of every migrants native Puerto Rico come Florida moved to main Florida, followed by southern Florida (about 20%). Puerto Ricans are attracted to central Florida as result of the big population of Puerto Ricans already living in the area; the education system, project opportunities, and fairly inexpensive real estate are additional attractors. Orange County recorded the biggest inflow of Puerto Ricans of every Florida counties in between 2005 and also 2016, as presented in figure 3 and also Table 3, adhered to by Osceola and also Hillsborough counties. Round off out the top five are Miami-Dade and also Broward counties in southern Florida.

 

Figure 3. Average annual Inflows indigenous Puerto Rico to Florida Counties, 2005–2016

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Table 3. The peak 10 destination Counties for complete Inflows native Puerto Rico to Florida, 2005–2016

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Turning indigenous Florida come the nation, Table 4 screens the 15 counties in the United says with the largest populations that Puerto Rican residents. Because the 1-year ACS approximates can fluctuate from year-to-year, us averaged three years the data to provide an ext stable results. We keep in mind that these space not the same to the 3-year ACS estimates, which have been stop in 2013. Table 4 shows estimates for 2005 come 2007 and also 2014 come 2016; these represent the earliest and the many recent ACS data available. In ~ the beginning of the period, 4 of the five boroughs of new York City – the Bronx, Brooklyn (Kings County), Manhattan (New York County), and Queens – to be in top six; chef County, Illinois, and Orange County, Florida were ranked 3rd and fourth. By 2014–2016, when the Bronx remained in an initial place, Manhattan had actually dropped four spots come ninth, and Brooklyn dropped from second to 3rd rank. The Bronx, Brooklyn, and Manhattan recorded population decreases between 10% and 17% over the period, totaling a network loss of over 90,000 people of Puerto Rican origin, while queens recorded only a an extremely slight increase. Chicago (Cook County, IL), which had actually the third largest Puerto Rican population in 2005–2007, also saw tiny growth over the period. In contrast, the biggest numeric and also percentage increases were in Florida: The Puerto Rican populaces in Orange, Hillsborough, and Osceola counties grew in between 50% and 78% end the period, and also these 3 counties relocated up between 2 and 4 point out in the ranking. Increases between 34% and 40% were recorded in the Connecticut flow Valley (Hampden County, MA; Hartford County, CT; and new Haven County, CT), adhered to by Philadelphia (+28%). Expansion was comparatively slower in southern Florida, through Broward and also Miami-Dade counties record increases in between 15% and also 24%; both counties to reduce in the ranking.

 

Table 4. The height 15 Counties for Puerto Rican inhabitants in the united States

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Migration operation from Puerto Rico vs. From other States

Inflows native Puerto Rico account because that only component of the expansion of the Puerto Rican population in Florida and also other states. Puerto Ricans additionally move between states, and also the population changes through natural increase<1> together well. Figure 4 to compare the annual inflows from Puerto Rico come Florida come the migration operation of Puerto Ricans relocating from other states come Florida during 2005-2016<2>. Interestingly, in all years but 2014 and 2015, there were an ext Puerto Ricans relocating from various other states come Florida than relocating from the island itself. However, migration indigenous Puerto Rico has actually increased end the period while the hike of Puerto Ricans from other states has actually been fairly flat. Furthermore, migration operation of Puerto Ricans from Florida to various other states likewise exceeded flows from Florida to Puerto Rico over the period, do the net exchange more balanced (data not shown).

 

Figure 4. Annual Inflows of Puerto Ricans to Florida, Puerto Rico vs. Various other States, 2005–2016

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Table 5 display screens Florida’s cumulative in-, out-, and also net migration operation of Puerto Ricans with the nine claims that recorded the largest inflows native Puerto Rico indigenous 2005 come 2016; additionally shown are the total exchanges v all other states. End the twelve year period, about 300,000 Puerto Ricans relocated from various other states to Florida, about 200,000 relocated from Florida to various other states, leading to a net gain of around 100,000 Puerto Rican residents. The most lopsided exchanges were with brand-new York and brand-new Jersey; inflows the Puerto Ricans from this two claims to Florida surpassed outflows by around 150% and 235%, respectively. Over the period, around 53,400 more Puerto Ricans relocated from brand-new York to Florida than relocated in the various other direction; various other sizable net gains were taped with brand-new Jersey (+19,300) and Pennsylvania (+11,000). Florida had actually positive network migration flows v only 4 of these ripe states, as much more Puerto Ricans moved from Florida to Texas, Massachusetts, Ohio, Georgia, and also California 보다 vice versa. However, except for Texas (–5,300), Florida’s network migration losses come these states were quite small.

 

Table 5. In-, Out-, and Net hike of Puerto Ricans between Florida and Other States, 2005–2016

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The impact of Hurricane Maria

The Puerto Rican population in Florida has actually grown substantially because 2000, specifically in main Florida. The devastation brought around by Hurricane Maria that struck Puerto Rico and also the U.S. Virgin archipelago in late September that 2017 has raised questions about the demographic effects on Florida. Due to the fact that early October, huge numbers the residents have been report leaving Puerto Rico and moving to the U.S. Mainland, v Florida gift a element destination. Data on really flows, however, are still quite sparse, and estimates of the in its entirety size the the flow – both current and for the near future – vary widely. Trip arrival data carry out some information, however have historically exaggeration actual migration operation by broad margins. This is because most wait passengers room not migrants, but tourists, human being traveling because that business, those visiting family and friends, etc. It is most likely that the proportion of migrants native Puerto Rico among air arrivals has been much greater after Hurricane Maria than was true in the past, but we nothing yet know by how much.

The many recent demographic Estimating Conference hosted December 5, 2017, in Tallahassee, FL, estimated about 53,000 Puerto Ricans and U.S. Virgin Islanders relocating to Florida permanently in an answer to the effects of Hurricane Maria.

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<3> This estimate was based on counts of Puerto Ricans that have actually visited Multi-Agency resource Centers in ~ Orlando worldwide Airport, Miami worldwide Airport, and the harbor of Miami with the finish of November 2017; flight arrivals and also school enrollment data were also considered when making this estimate. That is a reasonable estimate, provided the available information at the time, yet the ultimate number might turn out rather differently. Come us, this estimate appears somewhat conservative; us note, however, that some of the greater estimates that have circulated in the news appear to be highly speculative given the easily accessible data. This is a good reminder that estimates, choose the ACS PUMS data offered in this article, include margins the error. However, they are still beneficial when done with care, because that they do provide information. While us don’t yet understand how numerous Puerto Ricans will ultimately decide to leave the island together a an answer to Hurricane Maria, a not inconsequential demographic influence on Florida seems likely, especially for the greater Orlando area.