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West Delta 105 E is an oil-producing platform situated a dozen miles turn off the Louisiana shore in the Gulf of Mexico. A 2014 to explode on the lower deck killed Jerrel "Bubba" Hancock.

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office of Safety and also Environmental Enforcement

Within seconds, a bright, white flash erupted on the lower deck that West Delta 105 E, one oil-production communication positioned a dozen miles turn off the Louisiana coast. Disoriented, one crew member discovered himself 10 feet far from whereby he had been working before he blacked out. One more likened the impact to a sledgehammer blow to his head. A third told investigators he felt prefer he"d to be hit by one 18-wheeler, his hard hat, glasses and earplugs knocked off in the blast.

For a fourth, fatality came instantly. Jerrel "Bubba" Hancock, a 24-year-old father of two, to be the closest come the hatch of a large metal tank once flammable vapors ignited, unleashing a fireball the afternoon that Nov. 20, 2014. He passed away of blunt-force trauma come the head and chest.

Hancock"s fatality during a maintain job might have to be avoided, federal investigators break up in so late 2016. Safety lapses leading as much as the accident were laid bare in a 73-page report by the office of Safety and also Environmental Enforcement (BSEE), a little-known firm within the U.S. Room of the interior responsible for policing the sprawling offshore industry.


It to be the type of comprehensive post-mortem for which BSEE had actually been designed. But the agency has challenged crippling obstacles on several fronts, native staffing come its capacity to host companies accountable. Born in the wake of 2010"s Deepwater Horizon explode — which killed 11 workers and also dumped countless barrels that oil right into the Gulf that Mexico — BSEE has struggled to implement safety regulations that are currently under risk of being rolled back.

The agency"s team of around 130 assessors is responsible because that conducting 20,000 inspections annually across 2,000-plus framework from the Gulf to the Alaska coast. Its annual budget of $204 million is about a third of the expense of the sunken Deepwater rig. Under the trump administration, the very fate of the tiny bureau — and also its roughly 800 employees — is likewise in doubt.



As the White House and the inner Department pursue "energy dominance," opening more federal lands and also waters come drilling than ever before before, BSEE"s status — in addition to the safety reforms that aided empower the — has come to be increasingly tenuous. Pertains to over the agency"s potential death have swirled on Capitol Hill because that months, buoyed by inner Secretary Ryan Zinke"s calls for deregulation, restructuring and his controversial pick to lead BSEE: Louisiana native and longtime oil-industry allied Scott Angelle, who has actually pledged to take the bureau "from an era of isolation come an era the cooperation."


Companies have welcomed the change. Randall Luthi, head of the nationwide Ocean industries Association, which represents the offshore sector, is a pan of the agency"s "better dialogue" v businesses. "No company wants to have actually an accident," claimed Luthi. "Safety and good economics walk hand in hand."

The bureau has constantly strived to take a collaborative approach with industry, however critics concern BSEE is going as well far. "I do have a difficulty when the connection becomes so cozy the it"s not an arm"s size relationship anymore," Michael Bromwich, BSEE"s very first director, said in one interview through the center for public Integrity and also audioeditorfree.com. "I"m pertained to that that"s what"s continue now."

Safety supporters agree that conditions offshore have improved under BSEE"s watch. But the agency has faced hurdles end the years, troubles the predate the trump card administration. Reports through the government Accountability Office in 2016 and also 2017 in-depth how the bureau endured from poor leadership, relying top top a series of pricey external consultants to determine priorities and also strategic goals. Auditors also found a key program aimed at boosting the bureau"s inspections had been beset through delays over numerous years and also the agency had to let go a crucial opportunity to staff up. The bureau has actually had challenge attracting employees, completing directly through higher-paying oil and also gas carriers for technological experts.

Weeks ~ the 2016 election, the company was dealt a blow in the courts, i m sorry sided with industry and ruled that BSEE had no government to hold contractors — prefer the suppliers working on West Delta 105 E in 2014 — liable because that violations that might lead to spills, injuries or deaths. By early on 2017, the firm appeared to have abandoned what was once a priority: gaining industry to report near-misses through the aim of averting catastrophes.

The consequences of one ineffective regulator ripple far from Washington. Oil workers are 7 times an ext likely than the median U.S. Worker to die on the job, according to a 2013 research by the Centers for condition Control and Prevention.



Deepwater and also a sex-and-drugs values scandal pressure change

The first explosion on Transocean"s Deepwater Horizon rig hit in ~ 9:50 p.m. Top top April 20, 2010. Video captured 4,800 feet listed below the surface of the Gulf the Mexico showed grayish-orange oil gushing so fast from BP"s Macondo fine it looked like vapor from a locomotive. No hope to save on computer the leak resulted in by the blast, scientists and engineers shoot tires and also golf balls underwater in a failed effort to plug the well.

Researchers initially estimated crude oil to be spilling at a rate of 5,000 barrels per day; the actual number to be closer come 50,000.After 86 days, the well to be temporarily capped ~ above July 15, 2010, finishing the first chapter of what would become the largest and most expensive eco-friendly disaster the U.S. Petroleum market had ever before seen. But the internal Department was likewise reckoning v a debacle of its own.

A high-profile ethics scandal uncovered in 2008 continued to cast a zero on the agency"s Minerals administration Service, which, awkwardly, managed both offshore leasing and enforcement. Investigations uncovered coziness between MMS employees and also the suppliers they regulated, ranging from lavish gifts and self-dealing to cocaine-and-sex-fueled market events.

With Deepwater making nationwide headlines, inner officials might no longer overlook MMS"s fundamental conflict: generating revenue from offshore drilling while concurrently regulating the industry. Oversight had actually taken a earlier seat come leasing and it showed. MMS had fewer than 60 examiners to sheathe 3,000-plus offshore facilities and had never created an environmental enforcement program.

In October 2011, MMS to be dissolved and three separate agencies — consisting of BSEE — were created to take it its place.

"We kiss our households goodbye"

The male now running BSEE delivered a rallying cry following the Deepwater disaster that caused the agency"s creation. Simply days after ~ the well was capped, Angelle required to the Cajundome phase in Lafayette, Louisiana, and bellowed, "Enough is enough! and it"s time come quit punishing chaste American workers to accomplish some unrealistic politics agenda." the wasn"t talking about safety problems. He intended the moratorium ~ above deep-water drilling implemented by the Obama administration in an answer to the spill.

"We proudly execute what few other says are ready to do," Angelle, the state"s then-lieutenant governor, called the cheering crowd in the 13,500-seat arena. "We put on our hard hats and our steel-toe boots. We kiss our households goodbye, and also we start the difficult work of exploring, producing, processing, storing, refining and transporting the fuel come energize the an excellent United claims of America."

Handpicked by the Louisiana Oil and also Gas association to title the "Rally for economic Survival," Angelle was an essential to help overturn the moratorium. After ~ the rally, Angelle spearheaded the "Back to work Coalition," coordinating with lobby groups like the American Petroleum institute to reverse the half that exact same year. His efforts elevated his profile within the Republican party, despite he consequently failed in bids for governor and U.S. Congress.

BSEE declined requests by the Center and also audioeditorfree.com come interview Angelle, or others, around BSEE"s security mission and also how that comports with the trump card administration"s "energy dominance." An company spokesman created in an email that he was "told no to respond" come written inquiries sent by the facility for windy Integrity.

In a written statement come audioeditorfree.com, the company says Angelle is "laser concentrated on safety," and that this is not at odds with also focusing on durable production. BSEE says starting this month, it is raising the time its examiners spend on offshore oil and also gas facilities.

In a March press release, Angelle additionally said he wanted "BSEE"s programs and also processes to it is in the best in the world, and also I"m not afraid to subject them come scrutiny to identify where enhancements are needed."

Not "just a strange and uaudioeditorfree.comecedented event"

To this day, Angelle — like numerous hardline market voices — casts the BP disaster together a fluke. But safety specialists have said since 2011 that the difficulties that doomed Deepwater — prefer faulty equipment and disregard for safety protocols — space far more common than carriers admit.

"It"s simply not exact to point to Deepwater Horizon and also say, "Well, this is simply a strange and uaudioeditorfree.comecedented event unlikely come recur,"" states Bromwich, a previous Justice department inspector general who supervised the bureau"s development in 2011 and now operation a Washington-based publicly affairs firm. That points come a unique presidential commission that investigated the disaster and found the Macondo blowout was no an isolated incident. Previous nearby calls can have been just as catastrophic had actually it no been because that luck.

The commission"s report in 2011 discovered that regulators hadn"t kept pace through the offshore industry, i beg your pardon was significantly outsourcing job-related to building contractors while drilling deeper and also deeper. Back the U.S. Had actually the highest rate the offshore fatalities globally, it had actually the lowest price of report injuries, a "striking contrast" suggesting far-ranging underreporting by industry, follow to the commission.

Among the report"s recommendations was the production of one offshore safety group similar to a watchdog formed by the nuclear power sector ~ Pennsylvania"s three Mile Island reactor partially melted under in 1979. Within months the the report"s release, the American Petroleum academy — a lobbying powerhouse representing more than 650 that company members — started the center for Offshore security in Houston.

"We quite specifically in our report said, "We introduce this not be done within the American Petroleum Institute,"" claims Don Boesch, a college of Maryland professor of naval science and a commission member. "Even despite it"s lengthy been handling safety, it"s lobbying, it"s doing national politics instead. So, that would think it?"

API has long opposed offshore reforms, suggesting that market should be permitted to self-regulate. Over almost a century, the trade group has developed a plethora that voluntary market standards covering everything from drilling liquids to refining. But when BSEE tried to revamp that workplace safety and security rules and also make several of these API criter mandatory, the process took the firm six years. Boesch claims the hope was the API"s offshore center would help build consensus and also speed adoption of regulations. That didn"t occupational out the way.

In 2016, API protest the bureau"s well-control rule, which standardized steps such as blowout preventers, declare it would certainly saddle the industry with $30 billion in unnecessary costs. The regulation — which likewise took several years to develop — was at some point criticized through safety advocates for being too weak. The U.S. Chemical safety and security Board, i beg your pardon investigates commercial accidents, urged revisions that would certainly "give BSEE more explicit authority." neither API or its facility for Offshore safety and security responded come requests for comment.

API"s offshore facility was enlisted early to assist develop the bureau"s near-miss report system, a confidential program that tracks close-call cases like equipment failures. Launched in 2015, SafeOCS (for "outer continent shelf") was modeled top top a similar program supplied by advertisement airlines. Despite guarantees of anonymity for providers that paper reports, SafeOCS languished.

Just before the 2016 presidential election, Doug Morris, BSEE"s chef of offshore regulatory programs, defined industry response to the regime as "lukewarm." throughout a conference in may 2017, Morris again lamented lackluster participation in SafeOCS. "We constructed it, and nobody came," the said. As of last November, just three the 88 providers operating offshore had actually signed on.

BSEE refused to make Morris — that previously functioned for API as a controlling attorney — accessible for one interview. It also declined come answer any kind of questions about SafeOCS.

Activity in the Gulf has attracted down in current years as result of low oil prices and a surging in onshore production, but experts suspect it will pick up soon. Between the downturn, offshore crashes continue to do headlines.

In October, a damaged pipeline native a communication leaked approximately 672,000 gallons the oil in the largest Gulf spill because Deepwater. In December, a worker off the coast of Louisiana passed away after getting pinned versus a bar recognized as a stanchion. BSEE is investigate the February death of an offshore contract worker eliminated while managing fire-fighting equipment.

In media interviews critical year, Angelle faulted the Obama management for not doing sufficient to bolster near-miss reporting.He pledged to far better promote the program and formed a special team to figure out why the hasn"t captured on.

A legit setback come holding home builders liable

The agency has likewise faced setbacks in the attempts come hold contractors liable. When Michael Bromwich was lugged on to overhaul offshore regulation in June 2010, he to be surprised to discover that violate historically had actually not been issued to home builders — also when it to be clear that they, not platform owners, had involved in misconduct.

Interior"s authority, he was told, stopped at leaseholders, in spite of the ubiquity the contractors and also the inherent risks of deep-water drilling. Eighty percent of offshore workers killed from 2003 come 2010 to be contracted employees, follow to CDC data. So was Bubba Hancock, killed in 2014.

"The truth that we had actually unilaterally chose to grant immunity to every non-operators was a misguided plot of bureaucratic grace," Bromwich told an industry crowd in 2011, vowing to continue BSEE"s new policy of holding builders liable. The very first violations the firm issued to home builders went to Transocean and also Halliburton, two companies affiliated in the BP spill.

The point of the speech, Bromwich said in a current interview, was to tell sector it can no longer "get away with murder."

"It was really kind of going into the lion"s den and also telling them, "We"re comes after you,"" the says.

But industry fought back and won. In USA v. Black color Elk power Offshore, the U.S. Court that Appeals for the fifth Circuit ruled the federal government had no government to bring criminal sanctions against contractors for their duty in a 2012 explosion that eliminated three workers and left one oil sheen in the Gulf.

In Island operation Co., Inc. V. Jewell, the internal Department fined Island because that its role in a 2012 near-miss in which 2 workers dived 40 feet turn off a communication to to escape a chemical fire. Yet a psychological court agreed with the company that the government likewise lacked authority to carry civil sanctions and Interior did not go after an appeal. Island had actually especially solid backing because that its case. Involvement in support was the U.S. Oil and also Gas Association and also the nationwide Ocean sectors Association, the team headed by Luthi, the previous Wyoming legislator who served as MMS director from 2007 to 2009 and investigated the sex and also drugs scandal. Representing Island was Bracewell LLP, a top-dollar regulation firm recognized for vigorously defending the oil industry.

Island did not respond to multiple requests because that comment. In an interview, Luthi claimed that it"s up to companies to ensure the builders they hire room safe. "As a leaseholder you"re the one that is eventually primarily responsible because that what walk on," claims Luthi. "The leaseholder i do not care the regulator to ensure all the standards are met."

"Not adhering to simple tenets that a security culture"

Contractor safety was one area BSEE officials asked the nationwide Academy of scientific researches to study in 2016 as part of a evaluation of the bureau"s inspection program. But in December, Secretary Zinke abruptly suspended the study, drawing the ire that environmentalists and also safety advocates. In March, Zinke announced several efforts to certain "responsible energy development," such as raising the time BSEE assessors spend offshore.

The explode that eliminated Hancock in 2014 is proof that "not adhering come the simple tenets of a safety culture can lead to tragic results," then-BSEE manager Brian Salerno created in a 2016 memo. Follow to the agency"s report, a switch powering a unit referred to as a heater-treater hadn"t been turned off, in spite of assurances by an employee that Island operation Company, a firm contract by communication owner Fieldwood power LLC to handle daily operations. Hancock worked for a cleaning firm hired through Fieldwood to wash down the unit. At the time of the accident, Island was a contractor for 625 structures in the Gulf.

Island did no respond to multiple requests because that comment.

Fieldwood CEO Matt McCarroll composed in an e-mail to the facility for windy Integrity, "We have actually no higher mission or obligation than the safety and security of our operations, employees and also contractors." The agency also noted documents in which it asserted the Hancock and the agency he functioned for, Turnkey cleaning Services, to be responsible for safety and security failures that caused the accident.

While BSEE uncovered that Turnkey go not effectively follow security procedures, the firm concluded that strength flowing with the unit to be the "probable cause of the ignition" that brought about the explosion.

Dale P. Boy name Jr., who is provided as the major of Turnkey, did not respond come calls for comment. Fieldwood, i beg your pardon filed because that bankruptcy security in February, is right now appealing several safety citations BSEE issued to the company as a an outcome of the 2014 explosion.

The night the his death, Hancock"s body to be airlifted to brand-new Orleans and transported 150 mile west come Abbeville — the city wherein he and also his wife, Kayler, fell in love and raised your children. Three days prior to Thanksgiving 2014, she laid her husband to rest.

"I was mad at anyone on that platform," Kayler stated by telephone. She settled a wrongful-death case versus Island and also Fieldwood critical year for an undisclosed amount. "I essential justice because that my children," she said. "I felt like they fan me the world, since they took the human being away indigenous me."

audioeditorfree.com reporter Jeff Brady added to this story.

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The Center because that Public Integrity is a noaudioeditorfree.comofit, nonpartisan investigative news organization based in Washington, D.C.