Muammar Gaddafi concerned power in Libya in September 1969 together the leader the a bloodless military coup which toppled the British-backed King Idris.




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He was 27 year old, inspired by Egyptian chairman Gamal Abdul Nasser and also he seemed to to the right the local template of Arab conference from the military becoming president. However he outlasted his contemporaries.


During practically 42 year in power he created his own mechanism of government, sustained radical equipped groups as varied as the IRA in northern Ireland and also the Abu Sayyaf in the Philippines, and presided over what may have actually been north Africa's many totalitarian, arbitrary and brutal regime.


In the last years of his rule, Libya arised from the worldwide isolation that followed the bombing of Pan Am trip 103 end Lockerbie in Scotland in December 1988. The country was when again courted by western governments and also companies drawn to its substantial energy reserves and the rich contracts on offer in an ambitious framework programme.


The uprising that eventually overthrew him began in February 2011 in Libya's 2nd city Benghazi, a city he had neglected and also whose inhabitants he mistrusted throughout his rule.


He always played top top his humble, lack roots, preferring to greet travellers in his tent, and also to key it as soon as on foreign visits. His legitimacy depended on his anti-colonialist credentials in ~ first, and then on keeping the country in perpetual revolution.


His declared political philosophy, expounded at size in the environment-friendly Book, was "government by the masses".


In 1977, Gaddafi proclaimed the Libyan "Jamahiriya" - a neologism an interpretation roughly state the the masses.


The concept was the Libya had come to be a democracy of the people, governed v local popular Revolutionary Councils.


Gaddafi was a expert political manipulator, playing off various tribes against each various other and versus state institutions or constituencies. He additionally developed a strong personality cult.


The worst duration for Libyans was most likely the 1980s, once Col Gaddafi experimented top top his people with his social theories.


As component of his "cultural revolution" that banned all personal enterprise and unsound books were burned.


He additionally had dissidents based abroad murdered. Freedom of speech and also association to be absolutely squashed and acts that violent repression were numerous.


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For Libyans crucial of Col Gaddafi his best crime may have been the squandering of riches on international adventures and also corruption.


With a population of just six million and also annual oil profits of us $32bn in 2010, Libya's potential is huge. Most Libyans execute not feeling this wealth and living conditions can be reminiscent of far poorer countries.


Libya's particular kind of socialism does provide cost-free education, healthcare and subsidised housing and transport, yet wages are extremely low and the riches of the state and profits from foreign investments have actually only benefited a narrow elite.


In 1999, the Libyan leader made a comeback from nearly total global isolation when he embraced the blame for the Lockerbie bombing.


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Image caption, The demonstrations infect Tripoli after ~ after urban in the east appeared to autumn to the opposition

Following 11 September 2001, that signed as much as the us government's so-called "war on terror". Soon after the US invasion of Iraq in 2003, Libya announced that it was abandoning the nuclear and also biological weapons programmes. Both of these were watched by his doubters as highly pessimistic moves.


In the last years of his rule, as inquiries of sequence arose, two of his sons seemed to it is in in open and also damaging competition against each other for his favour.


The affect of Saif al-Islam, the elder boy who took an attention in the media and human rights issues, appeared to it is in waning together the affect of Mutassim, who had a powerful role in the protection services, grew.




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Inspired by neighbours to the west and also east, Libyans increased up against 40 year of quixotic and also often brutal ascendancy in beforehand 2011.