Contact: Kelsey Davenport, Director for Nonproliferation Policy, (202) 463-8270 x102; Kingston Reif, Director because that Disarmament and Threat reduction Policy, (202) 463-8270 x104; Daryl G. Kimball, Executive Director, (202) 463-8270 x107.

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At the dawn of the atom age, the United says hoped to preserve a syndicate on its brand-new weapon, but the secrets and also the an innovation for structure the atom bomb quickly spread. The unified States carried out its first nuclear check explosion in July 1945 and also dropped two atomic bombs on the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan, in august 1945. Just 4 years later, the Soviet Union carried out its very first nuclear check explosion. The united kingdom (1952), France (1960), and also China (1964) followed. Search to prevent the nuclear weapon ranking from expanding further, the united States and also other like-minded countries negotiated the nuclear Nonproliferation contract (NPT) in 1968 and also the substantial Nuclear Test ban Treaty (CTBT) in 1996.

India, Israel, and Pakistan never signed the NPT and also possess atom arsenals. Iraq initiated a secret nuclear routine under Saddam Hussein before the 1991 Persian Gulf War. North Korea announced its withdrawal from the NPT in January 2003 and has effectively tested progressed nuclear devices because that time. Iran and Libya have pursued secret nuclear activities in violation that the treaty’s terms, and Syria is doubt of having actually done the same. Still, atom nonproliferation successes outnumber failures, and also dire decades-old forecasts that the civilization would quickly be house to dozens that nuclear-armed have not come to pass.

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At the time the NPT was concluded, the atom stockpiles that both the unified States and the Soviet Union/Russia numbered in the tens of thousands. Beginning in the 1970s, U.S. And also Soviet/Russian leaders negotiated a series of bilateral arms control agreements and initiatives the limited, and later helped to reduce, the dimension of their nuclear arsenals.

Today, the United says deploys 1,357 and Russia deploys 1,456 strategic warheads on numerous hundred bombers and missiles, and also are modernizing their nuclear shipment systems. Warheads space counted using the provisions that the brand-new START agreement, extended for 5 year in January 2021.

New start caps each nation at 1,550 strategy deployed warheads and attributes one deployed warhead per deployed hefty bomber, no matter how many warheads each bomber carries. Warheads on deployed ICBMs and SLBMs room counted by the variety of re-entry vehicles on the missile. Each re-entry car can carry one warhead.

Both Russia and China also possess smaller numbers that non-strategic (a.k.a. Tactical) atom warheads, which are not subject to any type of treaty limits.

China, India, and Pakistan space all pursuing brand-new ballistic missile, cruise missile, and also sea-based nuclear shipment systems. In addition, Pakistan has actually lowered the threshold for nuclear weapons usage by developing tactical nuclear weapons capabilities to respond to perceived Indian conventional military threats. Phibìc Korea proceeds its nuclear quests in violation that its previously denuclearization pledges.

The world"s nuclear-armed states possess a linked total of about 13,080 atom warheads. Phibìc Korea, the ninth nuclear-weapon state, has produced enough fissile product for 40-50 warheads, back the official size the its stockpile remains unknown.

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Nuclear-Weapon States:

The nuclear-weapon states (NWS) room the 5 states—China, France, Russia, joined Kingdom, and also the joined States—officially recognized as possessing nuclear weapons by the NPT. The contract recognizes this states’ atom arsenals, however under article VI that the NPT they room not supposed to build and maintain such weapons in perpetuity. In 2000, the NWS committed themselves come an “unequivocal undertaking…to achieve the total elimination of your nuclear arsenals.” due to the fact that of the secretive nature through which most governments treat information about their atom arsenals, most of the figures below are finest estimates of each nuclear-weapon state’s atom holdings, consisting of both strategic warheads and also shorter-range and lower-yield nuclear bombs, normally referred to as tactical nuclear weapons.

China

France

Russia

United Kingdom

United States:

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Non-NPT Nuclear weapons Possessors:

India, Israel, and Pakistan never joined the NPT and also are known to possess nuclear weapons.India an initial tested a nuclear explosive maker in 1974. The test spurred Pakistan to ramp up occupational on its an enig nuclear weapons program.India and Pakistan both publicly demonstrated their nuclear weapon capabilities v a round of tit-for-tat atom tests in might 1998.Israel has actually not publicly carried out a nuclear test, does not admit or deny having nuclear weapons, and also states the it will certainly not it is in the very first to present nuclear tools in the middle East. Nevertheless, Israel is universally believed to possess nuclear arms, although the is unclear exactly how many.

The complying with arsenal estimates are based upon the lot of fissile material—highly enriched uranium and plutonium—that each of the states is estimated to have produced. Fissile material is the vital element because that making nuclear weapons. India and Israel are thought to use plutonium in their weapons, when Pakistan is assumed to use highly enriched uranium.

India approximately 156 atom warheads.Israel: An estimated 90 atom warheads, v fissile material for approximately 200.Pakistan around 165 atom warheads.

States that claimed Their tap the money from the NPT:

North Korea join the NPT as a non-nuclear weapon state yet announced its withdrawal from the NPT in 2003 --a relocate that has not to be legally well-known by the various other NPT member states. Phibìc Korea has tested nuclear devices and nuclear-capable ballistic missiles. Suspicion persists about how numerous nuclear gadgets North Korea has assembled.

North Korea:

While over there is a high level of uncertainty surrounding North Korea"s fissile product stockpile and also production, specifically on the uranium enrichment side, north Korea is estimated to have actually 20-40 kilograms of plutonium and 250-500 kilograms of extremely enriched uranium. The estimated annual production the fissile product is enough for 6-7 weapons.North Korea operates the 5-megawatt heavy-water graphite-moderated reactor come extract plutonium because that its atom warheads and also has excellent so on an intermittent basis because August 2013. There has likewise been intermittent activity at phibìc Korea"s reprocessing facility due to the fact that 2016, indicating that Pyongyang has actually likely be separate plutonium indigenous the reactor"s spent fuel.North Korea unveiled a centrifuge basic in 2010. It is most likely that Pyongyang is using that basic to create highly enriched uranium because that weapons. U.S. Intelligence says that there room several extr centrifuge framework in north Korea.

States of prompt Proliferation Concern:

Prior come the implementation that the Joint substantial Plan the Action, Iran pursued a uranium enrichment program and other projects that provided it through the capacity to create bomb-grade fissile material and also develop atom weapons, if it chose to perform so. Iran’s uranium enrichment program continues, but it is limited by the nuclear deal. Iran has taken actions to breach those borders in response to the U.S. Tap the money from the JCPOA and reimposition of sanctions but maintains that it does not intend to go after nuclear weapons. Iran’s nuclear routine remains based on safeguards through the IAEA, including consistent surveillance at particular facilities, put in location by the JCPOA.

In 2007, Israel bombed a website in Syria that was widely assessed to it is in a nuclear reactor being built with north Korea"s assistance. Syria has actually refused to cooperate with the global Atomic energy Agency"s attempts to investigate.

Iran:

No known weapons or adequate fissile material stockpiles to build weapons.The global Atomic Energy company (IAEA), the school charged v verifying that says are no illicitly building nuclear weapons, finish in 2003 that Iran had actually undertaken covert nuclear activities to develop the volume to indigenously produce fissile material.In 2020, the IAEA launched a new investigation right into Iran’s possible undeclared nuclear activities. If the investigation comes to materials and tasks from the pre-2003 period, the firm remains tasked through determining what, if any, materials or activities were omitted native Iran’s early stage declarations come the IAEA. In ~ the June 2020 plank of Governors meeting, IAEA member states passed a resolution calling on Iran to comply completely with the continuous investigation right into its previous nuclear activities. Together of October 2021, the IAEA"s investigation into Iran"s past nuclear activities is ongoing. 

Syria:

September 2007: Israel performed an airstrike ~ above what U.S. Public representative alleged to be the building site the a nuclear research reactor comparable to phibìc Korea’s Yongbyon reactor.The degree of Syrian-North korean nuclear participation is unclear however is believed to have begun in 1997.Investigations into the U.S. Insurance claims uncovered traces that undeclared synthetic uranium corpuscle at both the website of the ruined facility and also Syria’s claimed research reactor.Syria has not adequately cooperated through the IAEA to clarify the nature of the ruined facility and also procurement initiatives that can be regarded a nuclear program.

States That had Nuclear weapons or Nuclear tools Programs at One Time:

Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Ukraine inherited nuclear weapons following the Soviet Union’s 1991 collapse, but returned them come Russia and also joined the NPT as non-nuclear-weapon states.South Africa secretly emerged but ultimately dismantled that small variety of nuclear warheads and also joined the NPT in 1991.Iraq had an active nuclear tools program prior to the 1991 Persian Gulf War but was required to verifiably dismantle it under the supervision the UN inspectors. The U.S.-led march 2003 intrusion of Iraq and subsequent record of Iraqi leader Saddam Hussein definitively ended his regime’s quest of nuclear weapons.Libya voluntarily renounced its mystery nuclear weapons initiatives in December 2003.Argentina, Brazil, south Korea, and also Taiwan also shelved nuclear tools programs.

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Sources: Arms regulate Association, Federation that American Scientists, worldwide Panel on Fissile Materials, U.S. Department of Defense, U.S. Department of State, and also Stockholm global Peace research Institute.