Voters inside wall up in and also outside the Valley create Volunteer Fire department polling terminal in Pennsylvania on choice Day.Credit...Mark Makela for The new York Times

fake ballots, mail-in voting and voter fraud.>

After all the allegations the rampant voter fraud and also claims the millions had actually voted illegally, the human being who looked after the general election last month in states around the country have been adding up how plenty of credible reports of fraud they actually received. The overwhelming consensus: beside none.

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In an election in which much more than 137.7 million Americans cast ballots, election and also law enforcement public official in 26 states and also the ar of Columbia — Democratic-leaning, Republican-leaning and in-between — said that so much they knew that no credible allegations of fraudulent voting. Public official in another eight states claimed they knew of just one allegation.

A couple of states report somewhat larger numbers of fraud cases that to be under review. Tennessee counted 40 credible allegations the end of part 4.3 million primary and also general choice votes. In Georgia, where more than 4.1 million ballots to be cast, officials claimed they had opened 25 inquiries into “suspicious voting or election-related activity.”

But inquiries to all 50 says (every one however Kansas responded) discovered no says that report indications of prevalent fraud. And also while added allegations can surface as claims wind increase postelection reviews, your conclusions room unlikely to readjust significantly.

The result unambiguously debunk recurring statements by President-elect Donald J. Trumped that millions of illegal voter backed his autonomous opponent, Hillary Clinton. They likewise refute warnings by Republican governors in Maine and also North Carolina that election results can not be trusted.

And castle underscore what researchers and scholars have said because that years: Fraud through voters spreading ballots illegal is a minuscule problem, however a potent political weapon.

“The old concept that in which method there space all these impostors out there, civilization not default to vote that room voting — it’s a lie,” said Thomas E. Mann, a resident scholar at the institute of Governmental research studies at the university of California, Berkeley. “But it’s those being used in the states now to impose raised qualifications and restrictions ~ above voting.”

In a year that unfolded amid wild fraud claims, the reports from election officials were strikingly humdrum.

“Nothing at all, really,” said Jim Tenuto, the assistant executive, management director of the Illinois State plank of Elections.

“We only had actually one,” claimed Laura Strimple, Nebraska’s assistant secretary that state. “It hasn’t to be confirmed.”

“We i can not use received any kind of complaints come our office or any word of suspicious activity, and also we would certainly hear it,” said Matt Roberts, the spokesman for Arizona’s secretary that state.

Some state public official qualified their estimates, saying they had actually not yet reviewed every questionable ballots, or the voter fraud to be a local matter the was commonly — but not always — reported to them. Ohio officials declined to sell totals, saying they were still assessing complaints; Pennsylvania and also Mississippi officials stated they did not track fraud cases.

Many republic insist far-ranging problems persist, and also that much fraud goes undetected. The conservative Heritage structure has released online what it calls an incomplete perform of voter fraud and also other election-law violations date to 1982, roughly 450 situations involving both voters and public officials. Effectively written, laws requiring voter to screen IDs “could boost the fairness of the election procedure for everyone, nevertheless of party,” Hans von Spakovsky, the manager of the foundation’s Election law Reform Initiative, said.

Voting-rights advocates note that the existing system caught those violations — and that the numbers, much less than one every state per year — constitute a small sliver the the millions of votes cast in any type of election cycle.

No one doubts the election fraud has occurred and also needs to it is in monitored. Election outcomes have been readjusted by officials who transformed vote tallies, and also in theory hackers could pick winners by playing havoc through voter rolls, voting machines or electronic reporting networks. However voter fraud, in which someone deliberately casts an invalid ballot or a ballot under who else’s name, is exceedingly rare.

Its prevalence is at the love of the controversy on limitations like voter ID. Movie critics say the cracking under on abuses the barely exist can cost hundreds the thousands of people or more — regularly the poor and also minorities — their capability to vote.

For example, a federal court in 2014 found that in Wisconsin an approximated 300,000 voters that had already registered did not have any kind of of the compelled IDs.

Federal courts have altered or nullified the strictest voter-ID laws, speak they suppress turnout amongst minorities, who space most most likely to absence a required ID.

This year has actually set new benchmarks for accusations around tainted elections.

In Maine, Gov. Paul LePage, a Republican, this month certified state elections, in which Mrs. Clinton won, however refused to speak to the vote count accurate. (Maine’s secretary of state claims no voter fraud was detected.)

In phibìc Carolina, Gov. Beat McCrory, additionally a Republican, charged that Democratic-driven fraud in much more than fifty percent the state’s 100 counties added to his re-election defeat by the state attorney general, Roy Cooper.

Mr. McCrory conceded ~ above Dec. 6. Yet for 3 weeks prior to that, he and others continuously accused democracy of concocting illegal absentee ballots and relying top top votes by criminals, the dead and two-time voters.

The accusations proved greatly spurious. Of an ext than 4.7 million ballots cast, election officials uncovered 25 reportedly invalid votes by felons; even if it is they knew they were ineligible to vote is unclear. State and also county election boards, all led through Republican majorities, threw out most of the continuing to be challenges. So-called dead voter actually had died after spreading early votes; two-time voter turned out to be world with similar or identical names.

Mr. Trump falsely check on Twitter that he would have won the well-known vote — Mrs. Clinton obtained some 2.8 million much more votes — “if you deduct the millions of world who poll illegally.”

But also Republican leaders who when disavowed Mr. Trump’s fraud remarks have actually fallen silent. In October, the home speaker, Paul D. Ryan, countered Mr. Trump’s rigged-election claims by noting v a spokeswoman that he was “fully confident” the an honest vote.

Asked this month around Mr. Trump’s insurance claim that Mrs. Clinton won the well-known vote with illegal ballots, Mr. Ryan demurred. “I nothing know. I’m not really focused on these things,” he told CBS News’s “60 Minutes.”

Reince Priebus, the Republican nationwide Committee chairman and Mr. Trump’s cook of staff, go further. “I don’t know that it’s no true,” he stated on CBS’s “Face the Nation.” “It’s possible.”

Bogus fraud cases are no new. “You contact up and say there room busloads of world being dropped turn off in lot of parishes, and we have actually to inspect it out, also though we hear that every election,” claimed Meg Casper, the spokeswoman because that Louisiana’s secretary of state. “We contact up the precinct office and also they say, ‘No, we haven’t viewed anything prefer that.’”

Still, virtually every election has actually some irregularities, including last month’s.

In Walterboro, S.C., records proved that a woman actors an absentee ballot, yet voted again on election Day. “She shown that she was came to her absentee ballot i will not ~ count,” said Chris Whitmire, a spokesman for the State election Commission.

In north Dakota, said the deputy secretary of state, Jim Silrum, “one the our ar auditors was dubbed the job after the election by a voter that said: ‘Hey, my name is so-and-so. Ns from Minnesota however I vote in the election and to carry out that ns filled the end an affidavit. Have the right to you make me a Minnesotan again?’”

In new Hampshire, stated Brian W. Buonamano, one assistant attorney general, public official are evaluating four to 6 unconfirmed complaints — “voting much more than once, lie on her affidavit, things prefer that.” In Kentucky, a voter hotline videotaped 18 complaints that “general election fraud;” upon investigation, nobody were deemed credible.

In Idaho, a single voter was found to have actually cast another ballot in Oregon. In Delaware, “one voter poll absentee ballot in Suffolk County and also then checked out Kent County, adjusted his address, and voted again,” stated Secretary of State Elaine Manlove. “First time that’s ever been reported to me.”

Colorado, whereby most residents vote by mail, has actually sequestered 20,000 ballots for testimonial — some lacking signatures or the ID that first-time voter are forced to mail in, many with signatures the don’t match those top top file.

But “we’re no saying there space 20,000 situations of fraud,” stated Lynn Bartels, a spokeswoman because that Secretary of State Wayne W. Williams. Indeed, she said, a ballot cast by Mr. Williams’s daughter was once rejected because of a mismatched signature. Voting professionals say the large bulk of mismatches arise indigenous handwriting transforms or signatures poorly gotten in on touchpads.

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As because that noncitizens casting invalid ballots, Mr. Trump was right: the did happen. Not numerous times, however at least once. Tennessee is still investigate one allegation that noncitizen voting. And in Oregon, one American citizens registered she noncitizen husband come vote, which he did — until he found it was illegal. The guy reported his mistake to county choice officials, the secretary the state’s office said.