Update: The longest federal government shutdown in U.S. Background began on Dec. 22, 2018. Here"s everything you need to know around it.

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Since the modern congressional budgeting process took result in 1976, there have been a full of seventeen separate government shutdowns (or "spending gaps" in Hill jargon). Offered that we appear to be headed for another one imminently, let"s look earlier at those experiences, the politics circumstances about them and what happened as a consequence. Many of the specifically, were attracted from The Washington Post print archives, which you can access for a modest amount here.


It"s likewise important to keep in mind that no all shutdowns are produced equal. Prior to some 1980 and also 1981 opinions authorize by then-Attorney General Benjamin Civiletti, a fail to fund some part of the government didn"t necessarily typical that that component of government would prevent functioning. Civiletti"s opinions taken the Antideficiency Act, a legislation passed in 1884, as an interpretation that a fail to pass new spending bills forced government functioning come shut under in totality or in part. So the "shutdowns" noted below the happened between 1976 tand 1979 walk not always entail an actual stop to government functioning; lock were frequently simply funding gaps the didn"t have any kind of real-world effect.


When go it take it place? Sept. 30 come Oct. 11, 1976How long did that last? 10 daysWho to be president? Gerald FordWho managed the Senate? Democrats, 62-38; Mike Mansfield was majority leaderWho managed the House? Democrats, 291-144; Carl Albert was speakerWhy did that happen? The significant budget conflict during this period came because Ford vetoed a funding bill for the Departments of Labor and Health, Education, and also Welfare (or HEW, today break-up into the department of Education and of Health and also Human Services), arguing that it failed to restrain safety adequately.What addressed it? Congress overrode Ford"s veto Oct. 1, for this reason the safety bills take it effect, yet it wasn"t till over a week later on that the partial shutdown ended, together it was only on Oct.11 that a proceeding resolution ending resources gaps for other parts of government became law.


When did it take it place? Sept. 30 to Oct. 13, 1977How long did it last? 12 daysWho was president? Jimmy CarterWho managed the Senate? Democrats, 59-41; Robert Byrd was bulk leaderWho controlled the House? Democrats, 292-143; pointer O"Neill to be speakerWhy did the happen? The residence insisted on proceeding the ban on making use of Medicaid dollars to pay because that abortions except in cases where the life of the mom was in ~ stake. The Senate wanted to ease this to encompass allowances for abortions in the instance of rape or incest or as soon as the mother"s health was in danger. Due to the fact that the problem had come to be tied to capital for Labor and HEW, failure to come to an agreement led those agencies to have a funding gap.What resolved it? The Medicaid half was continued until Oct. 31 and the shutdown ended, to provide negotiators much more time to occupational out a deal.


When did it take it place? Oct. 31 come Nov. 9, 1977How lengthy did it last? 8 daysWho to be president? Jimmy CarterWho managed the Senate? Democrats, 59-41; Robert Byrd was majority leaderWho regulated the House? Democrats, 292-143; reminder O"Neill to be speakerWhy did that happen? Not enough time had actually elapsed because the momentary measure ending the shutdown passed because that the abortion standoff to be resolved.What solved it? Another short-term bill was signed by Carter to permit for an ext time for Congress to deal with its abortion dispute.


Shutdown #4: The Abortion Shutdown III: Dark the the Moon


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When walk it take place? Nov. 30 come Dec. 9, 1977How long did that last? 8 daysWho to be president? Jimmy CarterWho regulated the Senate? Democrats, 59-41; Robert Byrd was bulk leaderWho controlled the House? Democrats, 292-143; guideline O"Neill to be speakerWhy did it happen? The 2nd temporary measure ending a shutdown, supposed to allow much more time for negotiation, didn"t last long enough. The House, in particular, garbage a Senate proposal that would have permitted for medical allowance to pay for abortions by victims of statutory rape. House conservative rejected the as as well lax and also House liberals as too hard on rape victims. Rep. George müller (D-Calif.), who is tho in the House, asked on the home floor, "What happens in ft Apache , wherein a girl is gang-raped and told she will certainly be killed if she reports it?"


What addressed it? A deal was brokered in i m sorry the exception enabling Medicaid come pay for abortions in situations where the mother"s life is threatened was widened to encompass abortions resulting from rape or incest, or which are crucial to safeguard the mother"s wellness (even if her life was not endangered).


When go it take it place? Sept. 30 to Oct.18, 1978How long did that last? 18 daysWho was president? Jimmy CarterWho controlled the Senate? Democrats, 59-41; Robert Byrd was majority leaderWho controlled the House? Democrats, 292-143; pointer O"Neill to be speakerWhy did that happen? Congress passed a defense invoice including resources for a nuclear-powered plane carrier. Carter judged that carrier wasteful and vetoed it. He additionally vetoed a public works appropriations bill because of water projects that he taken into consideration wasteful pork. Additionally, spending for HEW was delayed, when again, over a conflict concerning capital for abortion.What resolved it? A brand-new defense bill, excluding capital for the carrier, was passed, as was a new public works bill excluding the water projects Carter opposed. The ahead year"s compromise equipment on abortion, in which resources was scheduled for situations of rape, incest and jeopardy come the mother"s health, to be agreed come in both houses.


When go it take place? Sept. 30 come Oct. 12, 1979How lengthy did that last? 11 daysWho was president? Jimmy CarterWho regulated the Senate? Democrats, 58-42; Robert Byrd was bulk leaderWho controlled the House? Democrats, 277-158; guideline O"Neill to be speakerWhy did it happen? The residence wanted come raise conference and an elderly civil servant pay by 5.5 percent, which the Senate opposed. The reduced house additionally wanted to limit federal abortion security to cases where the mother"s life was in danger, while the Senate want to keep funding in cases of rape, incest, and also when the mother"s wellness is in serious jeopardy. The problem was no resolved before a partial shutdown.What addressed it? The House gained its salary increases however had to allow abortion funding in instances of rape or incest (but not once the mother"s health, quite than life, was in danger). The last was a slight tightening that the ahead year"s medicaid abortion compromise.


When walk it take place? Nov. 20-23, 1981How lengthy did that last? 2 daysWho was president? Ronald ReaganWho regulated the Senate? Republicans, 53-47; Howard Baker was majority leaderWho managed the House? Democrats, 244-191; reminder O"Neill was speakerWhy did the happen? Reagan promised to veto any type of spending bill the didn"t include at least fifty percent of his propose $8.4 billion in domestic budget plan cuts. The Senate pass a bill that met his specifications, yet the home insisted ~ above both higher defense cuts 보다 Reagan wanted and pay raises because that itself and also for senior-level federal civil servants. Eventually, the House and Senate i agreeed to and passed a package that fell $2 billion quick of the cut Reagan wanted, therefore Reagan vetoed it and also shut down the government.What addressed it? The House and also Senate passed, and Reagan signed, a invoice extending existing spending v Dec. 15, providing them time to job-related out a longer-lasting deal.


Shutdown #8: allow them eat shutdown


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When go it take it place? Sept. 30 to Oct. 2, 1982How long did that last? 1 dayWho to be president? Ronald ReaganWho regulated the Senate? Republicans, 53-47; Howard Baker was majority leaderWho managed the House? Democrats, 244-191; reminder O"Neill to be speakerWhy did it happen? Basically no reason. The brand-new fiscal year started and also Congress just hadn"t passed new spending in time, and also so parts of the government were compelled to close up door down. When there to be some arguments over security levels between the House and Senate and the administration, the reason the former didn"t pass the bill prior to a shutdown was usually that they had other plans.


"Congressional leaders barred a late-night session due to the fact that of major social occasions tonight by both Republicans and also Democrats," young name Tolchin in ~ the brand-new York time reported. "President Reagan invite all members of conference to a barbecue at the White House, while democracy were having actually a $1,000-a-plate fund-raising dinner."What resolved it? The House and also Senate passed spending receipt late, and also Reagan signed them regardless of the truth that they gone beyond his wanted spending level in the near-run.


When did it take place? Dec.17-21, 1982How long did it last? 3 daysWho to be president? Ronald ReaganWho controlled the Senate? Republicans, 53-47; Howard Baker was bulk leaderWho managed the House? Democrats, 244-191; reminder O"Neill was speakerWhy did it happen? House and Senate negotiators want to fund $5.4 billion and $1.2 billion, respectively, in public functions spending to create jobs, however the Reagan administration threatened come veto any kind of spending invoice that contained jobs money. The House also opposed resources the MX missile program, a significant defense priority the Reagan"s.What fixed it? The House and Senate abandoned their jobs plans yet declined to money the MX missile, or the Pershing II missile (which was a medium-range missile, if the MX to be intercontinental). Castle also provided funding for the Legal solutions Corp., which gives legal assistance for negative Americans and which Reagan had wanted abolished, and also increased foreign help to Israel above what Reagan wanted. When Reagan criticized these moves, the grudgingly signed the bill following a brief shutdown.


When go it take it place? Nov. 10-14, 1983How lengthy did the last? 3 daysWho was president? Ronald ReaganWho regulated the Senate? Republicans, 55-45; Howard Baker was majority leaderWho regulated the House? Democrats, 271-164; tip O"Neill was speakerWhy did the happen? House democracy passed one amendment including close to $1 billion in education and learning spending. They additionally cut foreign aid below what Reagan wanted, including money because that Israel and Egypt but cutting it significantly for Syria and also El Salvador, and also cut defense safety by about $11 billion relative to Reagan"s request. The dispute wasn"t resolved prior to a quick shutdown might occur.What fixed it? House democracy agreed to alleviate their education spending request to about $100 million. They likewise funded the MX missile, which lock had effectively cut capital for throughout the last shutdown battle. However, they kept their foreign help and defense cuts, and also got a ban on oil and also gas leasing in federal pet refuges. The spending invoice also included a half on using federal employee health insurance to money abortions, except when the mother"s life was in danger, comparable to the ban already in ar for medical allowance (see above). That wasn"t as partisan an worry at the time; it to be a success for anti-abortion members the both next (including Reagan and O"Neill) and loss because that pro-choice Democrats and also Republicans (including Baker).


When go it take it place? Sept. 30 come Oct. 3, 1984How long did the last? 2 daysWho was president? Ronald ReaganWho controlled the Senate? Republicans, 55-45; Howard Baker was majority leaderWho regulated the House? Democrats, 270-165; pointer O"Neill was speakerWhy did the happen? Passage that a spending invoice was complicated by the residence linking it to a crime-fighting package (which Reagan wanted) and a water jobs package (which the opposed), and the Senate"s tie it to a civil civil liberties measure (which Reagan likewise opposed) that would have reversed a supreme Court ruling weakening polite rights requirements on universities receiving commonwealth funds. Reagan readily available to forgo his crime bill in exchange because that junking the water package and also the civil civil liberties provision, but a transaction wasn"t reached in time to stop a brief shutdown.What resolved it? A three-day spending extension was passed and also signed so the the parties could keep negotiating.


When go it take it place? Oct. 3-5, 1984How long did the last? 1 dayWho was president? Ronald ReaganWho managed the Senate? Republicans, 55-45; Howard Baker was majority leaderWho regulated the House? Democrats, 270-165; pointer O"Neill to be speakerWhy did the happen? The three-day extension (see above) wasn"t long enough, apparently.What fixed it? Congress relented and also the water jobs were stripped native a spending bill, as was the civil rights measure. Castle passed a crime package follow me Reagan"s wanted lines as well. A compromise was resolved on funding for the Nicaraguan Contras (which emerged as an worry in the food of the negotiations, in spite of not originally being a reason of the shutdowns), within the anti-Sandinista forces could be sponsor until at an early stage the adhering to year.


When did it take it place? Oct. 16-18, 1986How lengthy did it last? 1 dayWho to be president? Ronald ReaganWho managed the Senate? Republicans, 53-47; Bob Dole was bulk leaderWho regulated the House? Democrats, 253-182; pointer O"Neill was speakerWhy did the happen? The quick shutdown complied with several disagreements between Reagan and also the Democrat-controlled House, including over a provision come ban companies from producing subsidiaries come get approximately labor contracts, another requiring that fifty percent the goods and labor used in offshore oil rigs it is in American in origin, and one that would have expanded assist to family members with dependency Children, i m sorry is what welfare was known as at the time. All of those were policies supported by home Democrats and also opposed through Reagan and Senate Republicans. The problem wasn"t resolved gradually to avoid a shutdown.What addressed it? House Democrats provided up a number of their demands, and also secured a promise for a poll on their welfare expansion, and in return happen appropriations important to reopen the government. Republicans, meanwhile, offered a concession pertained to the government"s sale of Conrail, a then-public railway.


When go it take place? Dec. 18-20, 1987How long did that last? 1 dayWho was president? Ronald ReaganWho controlled the Senate? Democrats, 54-46; Robert Byrd was bulk leaderWho managed the House? Democrats, 258-177; Jim Wright was speakerWhy did the happen? Reagan and also congressional Democrats could not agree on funding for the Nicaraguan "Contra" militants with time to avoid a shutdown. Additionally, Democrats thrust for a supplication reinstating the "Fairness Doctrine," which forced that broadcasters provide equal airing come both political parties in politics disputes, and which the FCC had recently stopped enforcing in ~ the time.What addressed it? Democrats succumbed on the same Doctrine, and also a deal was settled wherein nonlethal aid was detailed to the Contras.


Shutdown #15: somebody come up through a plan!


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When walk it take place? Oct. 5-9, 1990How long did the last? 3 daysWho to be president? George H.W. BushWho regulated the Senate? Democrats, 55-45; George Mitchell was majority leaderWho controlled the House? Democrats, 258-176; Tom Foley to be speakerWhy did it happen? Bush refuse to sign any kind of continuing resolution into law unless it to be paired with a deficit palliation plan, and backed increase the pledge by vetoing one the made it to his desk. The home failed come override his veto and the problem was not resolved prior to a shutdown.What fixed it? The House and also Senate embraced a joint budget plan resolution that provided an outline for reduce the deficit, and Bush climate signed a continuing resolution they sent him, finishing the shutdown.


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Federal workers marched outside the State department on Jan. 3, 1996, come protest the partial federal federal government shutdown. (AP)


When walk it take place? Nov. 13-19, 1995How long did it last? 5 daysWho to be president? bill ClintonWho regulated the Senate? Republicans, 53-47; Bob Dole was bulk leaderWho regulated the House? Republicans, 233-199; Newt Gingrich to be speakerWhy did the happen? The GOP-run Congress sent Clinton a proceeding resolution that would have actually raised Medicare premiums, committed the president to balance the budget plan within 7 years, and also curtailed eco-friendly regulations, among other provisions. That vetoed it, triggering a shutdown.What fixed it? The shutdown to be ended when Clinton, Gingrich and Dole got to an agreement to fund the federal government at 75 percent level for 4 weeks while budget negotiations continued. Clinton additionally agreed come the seven-year balanced budget timeline. Employees furloughed during the shutdown were given ago pay.


Shutdown #17: Clinton v. Gingrich, the Second: Baseline Boogaloo


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When did it take place? Dec. 5, 1995 come Jan. 6, 1996How lengthy did it last? 21 daysWho was president? bill ClintonWho regulated the Senate? Republicans, 53-47; Bob Dole was majority leaderWho regulated the House? Republicans, 235-198; Newt Gingrich was speakerWhy did it happen? Republican leaders demanded that the White residence propose a seven-year budget setup that balanced when making use of the CBO"s economic forecasts, fairly than the OMB"s, i beg your pardon were more optimistic. The setup Clinton proposed still developed a $115 exchange rate deficit in seven years according to CBO numbers, also as the OMB approximated that it would certainly balance the budget by then. The dispute was not resolved prior to the proceeding resolution agreed to a month previously (see vault entry) expired.What resolved it? Republicans caved, basically, and also passed law to store the government open. Clinton, in turn, it is registered a budget plan that the CBO said well balanced the budget within 7 years.


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