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The ax electoral system deserve to refer to the an approach by i m sorry elections are carried out (e.g., whether officials are chosen in single-winner matches multi-winner systems) or the technique by which votes space tallied to determine the result of an election (e.g., plurality systems, bulk systems, ranked-choice voting systems, etc.). In the united States, many federal and also state-level public representative are elected via plurality vote in single-winner contests, although part jurisdictions (e.g., cities, institution boards, etc.) employ different electoral systems.

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HIGHLIGHTS

See the sections listed below for additional information on the complying with topics:


Contents


1 Background1.2 methods for tallying votes to identify electoral outcomes2 Electoral systems supplied in Pennsylvania3 State legislation and ballot measures

Background


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An "I Voted" sticker.

The term electoral system have the right to refer to 2 distinct, however related, concepts: the method for conducting elections and also the technique for tallying votes to recognize electoral outcomes.

Methods because that conducting elections

Generally speaking, elections deserve to take among two an easy forms: single-winner or multi-winner. In a single-winner election, one candidate alone can be chosen to the office in question. In a multi-winner election, through contrast, many candidates can be elected to the very same office.<1><2>

A single-winner system is one in i beg your pardon one candidate is elected for an office. Elections for the presidency the the United states are single-winner contests; since the United claims Constitution offers for a single chief executive, no much more than one person have the right to serve in that volume at any type of given moment. Elections because that the joined States residence of to represent are additionally single-winner contests, together each district is permitted to elect a single representative.<1><2>A multi-winner system is one in i beg your pardon multiple candidates are elected to one office. Elections for at-large city council seat are sometimes multi-winner contests. Because that example, there might be three at-largeAll registered voters deserve to vote for seats ~ above the ballot in an at-large election. This is the different to a "by-district" election, in which just the registered voter of a details geographic area might vote for a specific seat up because that election. Council seats up for choice in a provided year. In some of these elections, voters room asked to pick up to three options on your ballots. The top three vote-getters success election come the at-large seats. Some state legislative chambers in the United states use multi-member districts, which elect multiple members. Proportional representation systems room a particular class the multi-winner systems in which offices are allocated to candidates or political next in relationship to their share that the total vote.<1><2><3>

Methods because that tallying votes to identify electoral outcomes

Single-winner device methods

Vote-tallying methods for single-winner election systems include, yet are not limited to, the following:

Multi-winner device methods

Vote-tallying techniques for multi-winner election systems include, but are not limited to, the following:

Electoral systems used in Pennsylvania

The states have the authority to determine which electoral solution they will use in contests because that state-level offices. The systems supplied in contests for federal office have to adhere to commonwealth constitutional guidelines, and also applicable state laws.

Federal elections


Article II, ar 1, of the United states Constitution offers that the president of the United claims is chosen by the Electoral college via bulk vote in a single-winner contest. That the 50 states, all yet two award all of their presidential electors to the presidential candidate that wins the well-known vote in the state (Maine and Nebraska each award two of their electors come the candidate who wins a plurality the the statewide vote; the staying electors space allocated come the winners of the plurality vote in the states" conference districts).<5>

Article I, section 4, of the United states Constitution sponsor the states the authority to recognize the rules through which they elect their United states Senators and also Representatives, unless the United says Congress action to readjust those rules:<6>

The Times, Places and Manner of stop Elections for Senators and Representatives, shall it is in prescribed in every State through the legislative thereof; however the Congress may at any time by regulation make or transform such Regulations, except as to the locations of chusing Senators.<7>
—Article I, section 4, the the United claims Constitution

Article I and the ten Amendment the the United claims Constitution establish that every state selects two United says Senators in staggered elections. In 1967, the United states Congress passed a regulation requiring the each state develop single-winner districts and exclusively selected their United claims Representatives native those districts. Consequently, in every state, United states Senators and United claims Representatives are elected in single-winner contests. A bulk of states determine winners in this contests via plurality vote. In Pennsylvania, congressional contests are decided by plurality vote.<8><9>

State-level elections

All elective state executive officers (e.g., governors, secretaries of state, treasurers, etc.) in the United claims are selected via single-winner contests. A complete of 40 claims conduct just single-winner contests for your state legislative elections. The 10 remaining states command multi-winner contests for part state legislature seats: Arizona, Idaho, Maryland, new Hampshire, new Jersey, north Dakota, south Dakota, Vermont, Washington, and West Virginia. Plurality counts are normally used to determine electoral outcomes, though part states and also jurisdictions use other tabulation approaches (for example, Louisiana employs a majority voting/two-round system in i beg your pardon a runoff basic election is organized if no candidate for congressional or state-level office wins a bulk of the vote in the an initial round the voting).<8>

The table below details the electoral systems supplied in Pennsylvania because that state legislative and state executive workplaces as that July 2017.

Electoral equipment for state-level workplaces in Pennsylvania Office Single-winner or multi-winner poll tabulation method
State legislators (representatives and also senators) Single-winner<10> Plurality<9>
State executive, management officials (governor, sublievenant governor, auditor general, treasurer, and also attorney general) Single-winner<11> Plurality<9><11>

State legislation and ballot measures

Electoral solution legislation

The complying with is a perform of current electoral solution bills that have been introduced in or passed by the Pennsylvania state legislature. To learn an ext about each of this bills, click the invoice title. This information is provided by BillTrack50 and also LegiScan.

Note: because of the nature that the sorting process used to generate this list, some results may not be pertinent to the topic. If no bills are presented below, no regulation pertaining come this topic has actually been presented in the legislative branch recently.

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Electoral equipment ballot measures

See also: Elections and campaigns top top the ballot and also List the Pennsylvania ballot measures

audioeditorfree.com has tracked no ballot measures relating to electoral solution in Pennsylvania.


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Voting policy
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Alabama • Alaska • Arizona • Arkansas • California • Colorado • Connecticut • Delaware • Florida • Georgia • Hawaii • Idaho • Illinois • Indiana • Iowa • Kansas • Kentucky • Louisiana • Maine • Maryland • Massachusetts • Michigan • Minnesota • Mississippi • Missouri • Montana • Nebraska • Nevada • brand-new Hampshire • new Jersey • new Mexico • brand-new York • phibìc Carolina • phibìc Dakota • Ohio • Oklahoma • Oregon • Pennsylvania • Rhode Island • south Carolina • south Dakota • Tennessee • Texas • Utah • vermouth • Virginia • Washington • West Virginia • Wisconsin • Wyoming
Alabama • Alaska • Arizona • Arkansas • California • Colorado • Connecticut • Delaware • Florida • Georgia • Hawaii • Idaho • Illinois • Indiana • Iowa • Kansas • Kentucky • Louisiana • Maine • Maryland • Massachusetts • Michigan • Minnesota • Mississippi • Missouri • Montana • Nebraska • Nevada • new Hampshire • new Jersey • brand-new Mexico • new York • phibìc Carolina • phibìc Dakota • Ohio • Oklahoma • Oregon • Pennsylvania • Rhode Island • south Carolina • southern Dakota • Tennessee • Texas • Utah • vermouth • Virginia • Washington • West Virginia • Wisconsin • Wyoming
Alabama • Alaska • Arizona • Arkansas • California • Colorado • Connecticut • Delaware • Florida • Georgia • Hawaii • Idaho • Illinois • Indiana • Iowa • Kansas • Kentucky • Louisiana • Maine • Maryland • Massachusetts • Michigan • Minnesota • Mississippi • Missouri • Montana • Nebraska • Nevada • brand-new Hampshire • new Jersey • brand-new Mexico • brand-new York • phibìc Carolina • north Dakota • Ohio • Oklahoma • Oregon • Pennsylvania • Rhode Island • south Carolina • southern Dakota • Tennessee • Texas • Utah • vermouth • Virginia • Washington • West Virginia • Wisconsin • Wyoming
Alabama • Alaska • Arizona • Arkansas • California • Colorado • Connecticut • Delaware • Florida • Georgia • Hawaii • Idaho • Illinois • Indiana • Iowa • Kansas • Kentucky • Louisiana • Maine • Maryland • Massachusetts • Michigan • Minnesota • Mississippi • Missouri • Montana • Nebraska • Nevada • brand-new Hampshire • new Jersey • new Mexico • new York • phibìc Carolina • north Dakota • Ohio • Oklahoma • Oregon • Pennsylvania • Rhode Island • southern Carolina • south Dakota • Tennessee • Texas • Utah • vermont • Virginia • Washington • West Virginia • Wisconsin • Wyoming
Alabama • Alaska • Arizona • Arkansas • California • Colorado • Connecticut • Delaware • Florida • Georgia • Hawaii • Idaho • Illinois • Indiana • Iowa • Kansas • Kentucky • Louisiana • Maine • Maryland • Massachusetts • Michigan • Minnesota • Mississippi • Missouri • Montana • Nebraska • Nevada • brand-new Hampshire • new Jersey • brand-new Mexico • new York • north Carolina • phibìc Dakota • Ohio • Oklahoma • Oregon • Pennsylvania • Rhode Island • south Carolina • southern Dakota • Tennessee • Texas • Utah • vermouth • Virginia • Washington • West Virginia • Wisconsin • Wyoming
Alabama • Alaska • Arizona • Arkansas • California • Colorado • Connecticut • Delaware • Florida • Georgia • Hawaii • Idaho • Illinois • Indiana • Iowa • Kansas • Kentucky • Louisiana • Maine • Maryland • Massachusetts • Michigan • Minnesota • Mississippi • Missouri • Montana • Nebraska • Nevada • new Hampshire • brand-new Jersey • new Mexico • new York • phibìc Carolina • phibìc Dakota • Ohio • Oklahoma • Oregon • Pennsylvania • Rhode Island • south Carolina • southern Dakota • Tennessee • Texas • Utah • vermont • Virginia • Washington • West Virginia • Wisconsin • Wyoming
Alabama • Alaska • Arizona • Arkansas • California • Colorado • Connecticut • Delaware • Florida • Georgia • Hawaii • Idaho • Illinois • Indiana • Iowa • Kansas • Kentucky • Louisiana • Maine • Maryland • Massachusetts • Michigan • Minnesota • Mississippi • Missouri • Montana • Nebraska • Nevada • new Hampshire • brand-new Jersey • brand-new Mexico • brand-new York • phibìc Carolina • phibìc Dakota • Ohio • Oklahoma • Oregon • Pennsylvania • Rhode Island • southern Carolina • southern Dakota • Tennessee • Texas • Utah • vermont • Virginia • Washington • West Virginia • Wisconsin • Wyoming