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The American spiritual Landscape in 2020

7 in ten american (70%) determine as Christian, including an ext than four in ten who identify as white Christian and an ext than one-quarter who identify as Christian of color. Almost one in four Americans (23%) are religiously unaffiliated, and also 5% identify with non-Christian religions.

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The most substantial social and political divides are between white Christians and Christians that color. An ext than four in ten americans (44%) determine as white Christian, including white evangelical Protestants (14%), white mainline (non-evangelical) Protestants (16%), and white Catholics (12%), as well as little percentages who identify as Latter-day Saint (Mormon), Jehovah’s Witness, and Orthodox Christian<2>. Believer of color include spain Catholics (8%), black Protestants (7%), spain Protestants (4%), other Protestants of shade (4%), and other Catholics of color (2%)<3>. The rest of religiously affiliated americans belong to non-Christian groups, consisting of 1% who space Jewish, 1% Muslim, 1% Buddhist, 0.5% Hindu, and also 1% who identify with various other religions. Religiously unaffiliated Americans make up those who execute not claim any type of particular religious affiliation (17%) and those who determine as atheist (3%) or agnostic (3%).

The decrease of White Christian America Slows

Over the last couple of decades, the relationship of the U.S. Populace that is white Christian has declined by virtually one-third. As newly as 1996, nearly two-thirds of americans (65%) identified as white and also Christian. Through 2006, the had decreased to 54%, and by 2017 it was under to 43%<4>. The ratio of white believer hit a low suggest in 2018, in ~ 42%, and also rebounded contempt in 2019 and 2020, come 44%. That mite upward indicates the decrease is slowing indigenous its speed of losing around 11% every decade.


The slight boost in white Christians in between 2018 and 2020 to be driven primarily by one uptick in the ratio of white mainline (non-evangelical) Protestants and also a stabilization in the ratio of white Catholics. Since 2007, white mainline (non-evangelical) Protestants have decreased from 19% that the populace to a low of 13% in 2016, but the last 3 years have actually seen small but stable increases, as much as 16% in 2020. White Catholics have also declined from a high suggest of 16% that the population in 2008, and their low allude of 11% developed in 2018. It is uncertain if the bump ago up come 12% in 2020 indicates a brand-new trend.

Since 2006, white evangelical Protestants have actually experienced the many precipitous drop in affiliation, shrinking indigenous 23% of americans in 2006 to 14% in 2020. The proportion has usually held steady since 2017 (15% in 2017, 2018, and 2019).

The climb of the “Nones” Slows

Disaffiliating white christians have fueled the development of the religiously unaffiliated throughout this period. Just 16% of americans reported gift religiously unaffiliated in 2007; this proportion increased to 19% through 2012, and also then gained around a percentage allude each year indigenous 2012 to 2017. Reflecting the trends above, the relationship of religiously unaffiliated american hit a high allude of 26% in 2018 yet has since slightly declined, to 23% in 2020.

The increase in proportion of religiously unaffiliated Americans has occurred throughout all period groups but has been most pronounced among young Americans. In 1986, only 10% of those eras 18–29 identified as religiously unaffiliated. In 2016, the number had actually increased to 38%, and also declined slightly in 2020, to 36%.


Stability amongst Christians the Color and also Non-Christian religious Groups

In 2020, about one in 4 Americans were Christians of shade (26%). This re-publishing is reasonably similar compared to that in 2016 (25%) and has grown just slightly since 2006 (23%). Individual teams of christians of color, including Black Protestants, hispanic Protestants, spain Catholics, black color Catholics, oriental American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) Christians, multiracial Christians, and Native American Christians, have actually shifted by single percentage points between 2006 and 2020.

The share of non-Christian spiritual groups has additionally remained steady between 2020 (4%), 2016 (4%), and also 2006 (5%). No non-Christian spiritual group has actually grown or declined considerably in size because 2006.

Demographics and also Diversity Among spiritual Groups

Young americans Are more Religiously Diverse

Americans periods 18–29 space the many religiously diverse age group. Although a majority (54%) are Christian, only 28% room white believer (including 12% who are white mainline Protestants, 8% who space white Catholics, and also 7% who space white evangelical Protestants), while 26% space Christians of shade (including 9% who room Hispanic Catholics, 5% who space Hispanic Protestants, 5% who are Black Protestants, 2% who space multiracial Christians, 2% who room AAPI Christians, and also 1% who are indigenous American Christians). Much more than one-third that young american (36%) space religiously unaffiliated, and also the remainder are Jewish (2%), Muslim (2%), buddhist (1%), Hindu (1%), or another religion (1%).


The ratio of white Christians increases proportionally as age increases. Among those ages 30–49, 41% are white Christian, together are half of those ages 50–64 (50%) and a majority of american 65 and also older (59%). These rises are counter by sharp declines in the relationship of religiously unaffiliated american in each age group. While much more than one-third of american under the age of 30 space religiously unaffiliated (36%), that proportion drops to one in four (25%) among those periods 30–49, to 18% amongst those eras 50–64, and also to just 14% among those ages 65 and older.

The proportions of believer of color and also non-Christian religious people feature an ext modest shifts. When the numbers room small, afri American Protestants comprise 8% the Americans ages 65 and also older but only 5% of americans under the period of 30. Through contrast, the proportions of spain Protestants, spain Catholics, and also adherents come other human being religions are significantly higher among younger americans than amongst people end 65.

Americans ages 65 and older are the only team whose spiritual profile has changed significantly since 2013. Amongst Americans 65 and also older, the proportion of white evangelical Protestants dropped native 26% in 2013 come 22% in 2020, and also the proportion of white Catholics dropped native 18% in 2013 come 15% in 2020. By contrast, the proportion of religiously unaffiliated seniors raised from 11% in 2013 come 14% in 2020.

White Evangelical Protestants room the Oldest religious Group

White evangelical Protestants are the oldest spiritual group in the U.S., v a median age of 56, contrasted to the median age in the nation of 47. White Catholics and Unitarian Universalists have actually median eras of 54 and also 53 years old, respectively. Black Protestants and also white mainline Protestants have a median period of 50. All other groups have typical ages below 50: Jehovah’s Witnesses (49), Jewish americans (48), Latter-day Saints (47), Orthodox christians (42), spain Catholics (42), spain Protestants (39), religiously unaffiliated world (38), Buddhists (36), Hindus (36), and also Muslims (33). In the youngest groups, one-third of Hindu (33%) and Buddhist (34%) Americans and also 42% of Muslim Americans are in the 18–29 age category.


Since 2013, the median period of most spiritual groups has actually increased slightly, v the exceptions of white mainline Protestants and Jewish Americans. The median age of black color Protestants has actually increased most, from 45 in 2013 come 50 in 2020. Other groups with considerable median period increases include Hispanic Protestants (from 35 come 39), white evangelical Protestants (from 53 to 56), Latter-day Saints (from 44 come 47), hispanic Catholics (from 39 to 42), and Hindu americans (from 33 come 36). Other teams have remained steady or enhanced in median age at a comparable level come the country as a totality (from 46 to 48).

The median period of white mainline Protestants and also Jewish american has diminished over the same period. In 2013, the median age for white mainline Protestants to be 52, and also in 2020 it was 50. Jewish american have decreased in median period from 52 in 2013 to 48 in 2020.

Hindu, Unitarian/Universalist, and Jewish american Most most likely to have College Degrees

Educational attainment varies significantly across religious groups. Majorities that Hindu (67%), Unitarian Universalist (59%), and Jewish (58%) Americans have four-year college degrees or higher. 4 in ten or an ext Orthodox christians (48%), white Catholics (42%), and Latter-day Saints (40%) additionally have at least a four-year college degree. More than one-third the Muslims (39%), white mainline Protestants (37%), Buddhists (37%), and also the religiously unaffiliated (36%) have actually at the very least a four-year college degree. 3 in ten white evangelical Protestants (29%) and Black Protestants (29%) hold college degrees, while one in five or much less Jehovah’s Witnesses (20%), hispanic Protestants (17%), and also Hispanic Catholics (15%) do.


Race/Ethnicity and spiritual Affiliation

A big majority (71%) that white Americans recognize as Christian. Fifty percent (50%) are Protestant, including 23% who determine as evangelical and 27% who are mainline Protestant. An additional 19% are Catholic, 2% are Latter-day Saint, and also less 보다 1% each are Jehovah’s Witnesses or Orthodox Christians. Most non-Christian white Americans are religiously unaffiliated (23%), v 2% who room Jewish and also less 보다 1% who are Muslim, Buddhist, Hindu, or an additional religion. Compared to 2013, white Americans space slightly less Christian in its entirety (74% in 2013) and much more likely to it is in unaffiliated (22% in 2013).


Black american are likewise mostly Christian (72%). Much more than 6 in ten (63%) space Protestant, consisting of 35% who identify as evangelical and also 28% who identify as non-evangelical Protestants. Seven percent of black color Americans space Catholic, if 2% space Muslim and also 2% are Buddhist, 2% are an additional religion, and 1% are Jehovah’s Witnesses; less than 1% identify as Latter-day Saint, Orthodox Christian, Jewish, or Hindu. More than one in 5 (21%) black Americans are religiously unaffiliated. Much more Black Americans figured out as Christian in 2013 (79%) and also fewer said they to be religiously unaffiliated (16% in 2013).

Three in 4 Hispanic americans (76%) recognize as Christian, and fifty percent (50%) room Catholic. Around one in four (24%) identify as Protestant, consisting of 14% that say they space evangelical and also 10% who recognize as non-evangelical Protestant. About 1% or less identity with other religious groups. About one in 5 (19%) room religiously unaffiliated. Just like Black and white Americans, much more Hispanic Americans established as Christian (79%) and less together unaffiliated (18%) in 2013.

Asian American and also Pacific Islander Americans space as likely to it is in religiously unaffiliated (34%) together they space to it is in Christian (34%). The Christian subset contains one in 5 (20%) who room Protestant (10% evangelical, 10% non-evangelical), 10% who room Catholic, 1% who room Latter-day Saint, and 1% who room Orthodox Christian. 3 in ten (29%) asian or Pacific Islander americans belong come a non-Christian religion, including 11% who space Hindu, 9% who space Buddhist, and 8% who space Muslim. Less than 1% space Jewish, and 1% belong to another religion. There are no far-ranging differences in religious affiliation in 2013 and 2020 because that AAPI Americans.

A majority (55%) that multiracial Americans room Christian. An ext than 4 in ten (41%) recognize as protestant (including 23% who space evangelical and 18% who space non-evangelical), while 11% space Catholic, 1% are Latter-day Saint, and also 1% room Orthodox Christians. 2 percent that multiracial Americans room Buddhist, and also 1% each are Jewish, Muslim, and also Hindu. One more 2% affiliate with another religion. More than one-third (34%) room religiously unaffiliated. There have actually been no an extensive shifts in spiritual affiliation amongst multiracial Americans due to the fact that 2014<5>.

Six in ten aboriginal Americans (60%) determine as Christian, mostly made up of 47% who room Protestant (28% evangelical, 19% non-evangelical). Second 11% room Catholic, 1% are Latter-day Saint, and also 1% space Jehovah’s Witnesses. 2 percent recognize with one more religion, 1% each are Jewish and Muslim, and less 보다 1% room Hindu and Buddhist. Almost three in ten aboriginal Americans (28%) space religiously unaffiliated. There have been no an extensive shifts in spiritual affiliation amongst Native Americans due to the fact that 2013.

Republicans vs. Democrats: White believer and religious Diversity

Both significant political parties are bulk Christian, through 83% of Republicans and 69% of democracy identifying as Christian. The biggest difference in the spiritual makeup the self-identified Republicans and Democrats is the ratio of white Christians contrasted to believer of color and the religiously unaffiliated. Two-thirds of republicans (68%) recognize as white and also Christian, compared to 39% that Democrats. Amongst Republicans, 29% space white evangelical Protestants, 22% room white mainline Protestants, and 15% are white Catholics. Amongst Democrats, those numbers loss to 9%, 16%, and also 13%, respectively.

By contrast, 13% that Democrats space Black Protestants, 10% room Hispanic Catholics, and also 4% are Hispanic Protestants, contrasted to only 2%, 3%, and 3%, respectively, amongst Republicans. Virtually one in four Democrats (23%) space religiously unaffiliated, compared to 13% the Republicans.

The spiritual makeup of Democrats normally resembles that of younger Americansages 18–29, who space 27% white Christian, 26% Christian the color, 7% an additional religion, and also 36% unaffiliated, and also ages 30–49, who space 40% white Christian, 32% Christian the color, 4% another religion, and also 23% unaffiliated. The Republican failure is more akin to teams of american over age 65, who space 59% white Christian, 20% Christian of color, 4% one more religion, and also 14% unaffiliated. Notably, no period group is as white and also Christian together Republicans.


Shares the Religiously Unaffiliated increasing in Both Parties

Shifts since 2013 in the religious composition of both the Republican Party and also the democratic Party monitor a comparable trend: a decline in the re-publishing of Christians and also a corresponding increase in the re-publishing of religiously unaffiliated Americans.

Among Republicans, many of this decrease is amongst white evangelical Protestants, that have decreased from 37% of the party in 2006 come 34% in 2013 and also are currently down come a short of 29% in 2020. Other teams of white Christian Republicans have not shifted fairly as dramatically. White mainline Protestants made up 22% that the party in 2006, reached a low of 18% in 2018 and rebounded to 22% in 2020. White Catholics decreased from 20% in 2006 to 17% in 2013, and have remained reasonably stable since that time, consisting of 15% of the party in 2020.

The share of religiously unaffiliated people amongst Republicans has actually increased dramatically. In 2006, just 4% the Republicans determined as unaffiliated. The proportion much more than doubled to 10% in 2013 and also continued to prosper to 13% in 2020.

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The democratic Party has seen a slight decline in the share of black Protestants and an increasing proportion the religiously unaffiliated members. In both 2006 and 2013, 18% the Democrats determined as black color Protestants. Starting in 2017, that share started declining: native 17% in 2017 come 15% in 2018 and 13% in 2020. The re-superstructure of unaffiliated democrats also much more than doubled in between 2006 (9%) and also 2013 (22%). From 2013 come 2018 (28%), the re-publishing of unaffiliated Democrats thrived slightly each year, before dropping to 23% in 2020. The decline in unaffiliated democrats from 2018 come 2020 is offset by an increase in white mainline Protestants (12% in 2018 and also 16% in 2020), regular with the in its entirety trend of increasing white mainline protestant affiliation among all Americans.