Chimpanzees are among our the next relatives, share an estimated 98% of your genes through humans. Four subspecies have been identified, based on differences in appearance and distribution:Western chimpanzee (P. T. Verus)Central chimpanzee (P. T. Troglodytes)Eastern chimpanzee (P. T. Schweinfurthii)Nigeria-Cameroon chimpanzee (P. T. Ellioti).There is a wide variety of behavioural differences between groups from various regions, for this reason the loss of any kind of one group represents a loss of cultural as well as biological heritage.

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Physical description

The properties chimpanzee shape contains arms that extend past the knees, opposable thumbs, and also a significant mouth. The skin ~ above the face, ears, palms, and also soles the the feet is bare, and also the rest of the human body is spanned with brown to black color hair. Monkeys usually relocate on the ground, although during the job they largely stay in trees, wherein they likewise sleep in makeshift swarms made through vegetation. This varieties walks "on all four", yet individuals can additionally walk on their legs for an ext than a kilometre. Young individuals sometimes swing from branch to branch.

Living in communities

Chimpanzees are uncovered in savanna woodlands, grassland-forest mosaics and also tropical moist forests, native sea level to around 3,000m in elevation. Social structure
Chimpanzees are extremely social animals. Their neighborhoods consist of loose and flexible teams of males and females (fusion-fission societies) in ~ a fixed house range, led by a leading male. Members join and leave these communities freely, depending among other on their reproductive status and also the availability of resources.Apart indigenous the dominant leader, over there are additionally groups of people with some level that authority. Communities of around 50 individuals each have been report in forest, woodland and also savanna habitat, but in its entirety size range is about 15-80.Subgroups may incorporate solitary people or varied groups of both sexes and also all ages. These aggregations room temporary and also constantly adjust in composition, nevertheless of gender and also age. Life cycleBreeding wake up throughout the year. Complying with a gestation duration ranging native 202 and also 261 days, females give birth come a solitary young, and occasionally twins, every 5-6 years. Of this offspring, about three will certainly survive. For the an initial 6 months, the young is carried around clinging come its mother"s underbelly, and also after that it rides ~ above its mother"s back. The weans in ~ 3.5-4.5 years, while still continuing to be reliant on its mom for a much longer period, occasionally up to 10 years. Although chimpanzees reach sexual maturity at around 7 years, females carry out not produce offspring till they reach 13-14 years of age. Chimpanzees may live until they space over 60. Diet & feedingFood items incorporate fruits, leaves and other plant parts, honey, insects (especially termites), and also occasionally eggs and also meat. Primates eat through their hands, i beg your pardon they additionally use to throw objects at enemies and to create tools. Notably, they will certainly poke a stick right into a termite mound to feeding on the insects, and also crack nuts open. The animals forage during the day because that 6-8 hours, through peaks of task in the beforehand morning and also late afternoon. Relying on the fruiting time of the tree they feeding on, tasks may transition seasonally. Primates sometimes stalk, kill and eat various other primates or young antelopes, and also may hunt co-operatively.


Biogeographic realmAfrotropicalRange says Angola, Burundi, Cameroon, central African Republic, Republic of Congo, autonomous Republic of the Congo, Côte d"Ivoire, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Tanzania, UgandaEcological RegionGuinean Moist Forests, Congolian seaside Forests, Cameroon Highlands Forests, Northeastern Congo basin Moist Forests, main Congo container Moist Forests, western Congo basin Moist Forests, Albertine Rift Montane Forests

Population & distribution

Previous populace & distribution
Chimpanzees had actually a vast but discontinuous distribution across Equatorial Africa, from southern Senegal throughout the forested belt phibìc of the Congo flow to west Uganda and also western Tanzania.Current populace & distributionDue come a absence of survey data in numerous regions, current estimates because that the wild population range indigenous 150,000 come 250,000 individuals. The circulation is still wide, however considerably smaller sized and more fragmented. The largest remaining populations occur in central Africa, greatly Gabon, democratic Republic that Congo (DRC), and Cameroon. Senegal, Mali, the Cabinda enclave the Angola, Equatorial Guinea, and Sudan save small, dispersed populations that are seriously at risk. Populations have severely decreased in Côte d"Ivoire, Ghana, Guinea-Bissau, Nigeria, Burundi and also Rwanda. Côte d"Ivoire, for example, once harboured vital population; however a current survey found this had decreased by 90% over the critical 20 years. Populations room no longer uncovered in Gambia, Burkina Faso, Benin, or Togo.The central chimpanzee is the most many of every chimpanzee subspecies, with a population of up to 115,000 individuals, largely in Gabon, Cameroon, and Congo. Small, isolated, or relict populations take place in the main African Republic, Equatorial Guinea, and Angola (Cabinda enclave), south-east Nigeria, and also possibly the coastal extension the DRC. Huge populations that this subspecies are now uncovered only where large areas of forest remain fairly undisturbed. The western chimpanzee once occurred in 13 countries from southerly Senegal eastwards as much as the Niger river in central Nigeria. Its circulation is now extremely patchy, reflecting the fragmentation the its habitat. The largest-remaining populace is discovered in Côte D"Ivoire, v smaller populations in Guinea, Sierra Leone, Nigeria, Guinea-Bissau, and also Liberia. Only relict populaces are found in Mali, Ghana, and also Senegal, and the subspecies is extinction in the wild in Gambia, Burkina Faso, Benin, and also possibly Togo. The total population is believed to be about 21,000-55,000 individuals. The eastern chimpanzee ranges native the Ubangi River/Congo river in central African Republic and DRC, to western Uganda, Rwanda and also western Tanzania. Small, relict populaces are found in Burundi and south-eastern Sudan. The Nigeria-Cameroon chimpanzee is the least numerous subspecies through a total population of much less than 6,500 people remaining  in Nigeria and also Cameroon, north of the Sanaga River. The just relatively large and secure populationis in Gashaka-Gumti nationwide Park in Nigeria, with an estimated population of as much as 1,500.  

Yellow: west chimpanzee distributionGreen: Nigeria-Cameroon chimpanzee distributionPurple: central chimpanzee distributionBlue: east chimpanzee distribution

What room the key threats?

The main threats to the chimpanzee are habitat loss and hunting for bushmeat. The loved one severity of these hazards differs from region to region, yet the two are linked. Habitat loss and degradation
Degradation of woodlands through logging, mining, farming, and also other develops of land development is contributing come the decline of primate species throughout tropical Africa. Continuing to be habitat patches room often little and unconnected, leaving chimpanzee populaces isolated.Deforestation is most progressed in West Africa, where only remnant tracts of primary rainforest remain. The tiny populations the western, Nigerian, and eastern monkeys are primarily located in remnant forest reserves and also national parks.In numerous such "protected areas", poaching for meat and also live infants is common, together is unauthorized logging, mining and farming. Logging activities improve access to formerly remote woodland areas, leading to increased hunting pressure.Bushmeat"Bushmeat" has constantly been a primary source of dietary protein in central and West african countries. But in current years, searching for bushmeat, as soon as a subsistence activity, has end up being heavily commercialized and also much that the meat goes to urban citizens who have the right to afford to pay premium prices because that it.The impact of the bushmeat trade on chimp populations has yet to be evaluated, yet a study in Congo confirmed that offtake to be 5-7%, surpassing annual populace increase. In addition, apes are often injured or killed in snares set for various other animals. Infant primates are typically taken alive and also sold in the urban as pets.Many conservationists believe that the bushmeat profession is now the best threat to forest biodiversity in West and main Africa.

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Disease - the Ebola crisisIn so late 2002 an episode of Ebola hemorrhagic fever in people was reported in the phibìc of the Republic that Congo ~ above the border through Gabon. The human being infections synchronized with a large-scale die-off of an excellent apes in the region. Two good apes are discovered in main Africa, the area currently affected by Ebola: western lowland gorilla and the central chimpanzee. Both have actually been severely influenced by the virus, which has drastically reduced populations. The an illness reportedly had a good impact in Odzala national Park, a site well-known to have actually the highest density of great apes in Africa.