Immigration native Canada accounts for a little and shrinking re-publishing of total migration to the united States. In 1960, about 10 percent the the U.S. Foreign-born population was Canadian, a re-superstructure that dropped to about 4 percent in 1990 and also dropped yet again to much less than 2 percent as of 2019. Presently, there are about 800,000 Canadians in the joined States.

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This decline is partially due to transforming U.S. Policy and also improved economic and educational opportunities in Canada. Migration native Canada was reasonably unrestricted with the an initial half that the 20th century. However, the U.S. Immigration and Nationality act of 1965 significantly restricted immigration indigenous the western Hemisphere, affect Canadians and also people from throughout the Americas. Combined with the expansion of the Canadian economy following human being War II, the number of Canadians in the unified States diminished by 13 percent, indigenous 952,000 in 1960 come 843,000 two decades later. The file of the Canadian immigrant population also changed; more recent arrivals were an ext likely come live away from the U.S.-Canada border and to immigrate for family members reunification reasons.

The dynamics of Canadian immigration to the unified States adjusted again in 1994 v enactment the the phibìc American cost-free Trade agreement (NAFTA), i beg your pardon facilitated accessibility to new temporary occupational visas that ended up being a primary pathway for Canadians. Today’s immigrant from Canada incorporate students, very educated professionals, household migrants, and retirees wishing come live in warmer climates. Canadian students space the fifth-largest group amongst the 1 million worldwide students attending U.S. Colleges and universities, and also Canadians got the third-largest variety of employer-sponsored H-1B momentary visas in fiscal year (FY) 2020. Still, the Canadian immigrant populace has as whole remained rather low contrasted to other groups, and also its numbers have actually stayed fairly steady since 1980 (see number 1).

Figure 1. Canadian Immigrant population in the unified States, 1980-2019


Sources: Data indigenous U.S. Census bureau 2010 and also 2019 American neighborhood Surveys (ACS), and Campbell J. Gibson and Kay Jung, "Historical Census Statistics top top the Foreign-born population of the joined States: 1850-2000" (Working document no. 81, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC, February 2006), available online.

The United claims is by far the most popular location for Canadians life abroad, accounting for much more than 60 percent of all emigrants from Canada. The united kingdom is house to the next largest populace of Canadians (108,000), followed by Australia (58,000), France (28,000), and also Italy (26,000), according to mid-2019 United nations Population department estimates.

Click here to check out an interactive map mirroring where migrants native Canada and also other nations have worked out worldwide.

Most Canadian immigrant have been in the United claims for decades, having actually arrived prior to 2000. The main pathways to permanent residence, additionally known together holding a environment-friendly card, are through employed staff or family reunification. Canadian immigrants are much more likely come be extremely educated contrasted to U.S.- and also overall foreign-born adults. They likewise are more likely to be older and less likely to get involved in the civilian job force. The those who execute work, the majority are to work in management, business, science, and also arts occupations.

Using data native the U.S. Census office (the most recent 2019 American community Survey and also pooled 2015-19 ACS data), the department of landscape Security’s Yearbook of immigration Statistics, and also the people Bank, this Spotlight gives information on the Canadian immigrant populace in the unified States, concentrating on that size, geographical distribution, and also socioeconomic characteristics.


The U.S. Census Bureau defines the foreign born as individuals without U.S. Citizenship in ~ birth. The foreign-born population includes naturalized citizens, lawful irreversible residents, refugees and also asylees, legit nonimmigrants (including those ~ above student, work, or other temporary visas), and also persons residents in the nation without authorization.

The terms “foreign born” and “immigrant” are offered interchangeably and refer come those who were born in another country and later emigrated come the joined States.

Click top top the cartridge points below for more information:

Distribution by State and key Cities

In the 2015-19 period, immigrant from Canada were concentrated in California (16 percent) and also Florida (14 percent), adhered to by brand-new York and Texas (7 percent and 6 percent, respectively). Ten states were home to about two-thirds that the Canadian immigrant population. The top 5 counties through Canadian population were Los Angeles ar in California, Maricopa ar in Arizona, King ar in Washington, Broward county in Florida, and Orange ar in California. Together 5 these counties were house to 13 percent that Canadian immigrant in the unified States.

Figure 2. Top location States for Canadian-Born immigrant in the united States, 2015-19


Note: Pooled 2015-19 ACS data were used to obtain statistically valid approximates at the state level because that smaller-population geographies. Not shown are the populations in Alaska and Hawaii, i m sorry are small in size; because that details, visit the Migration policy Institute (MPI) Data Hub because that an interaction map showing geographic circulation of immigrants by state and also county, available online.

Source: MPI tabulation the data native U.S. Census bureau pooled 2015-19 ACS.

Click here for an interactive map that highlights the states and also counties v the greatest concentrations of immigrant from Canada and also other countries.

The U.S. Cities with the largest number of Canadians to be the greater brand-new York, Los Angeles, Miami, Phoenix, and also Seattle urban areas. These five metro locations accounted for about 22 percent the Canadians residing in the unified States.

Figure 3. Top urban Destinations for Canadian-Born immigrants in the unified States, 2015-19


Note: Pooled 2015-19 ACS data were used to obtain statistically valid estimates at the urban statistical-area level for smaller-population geographies.

Source: MPI tabulation that data indigenous U.S. Census bureau pooled 2015-19 ACS.

Click here for an interactive map that highlights the metropolitan areas with the greatest concentrations of immigrants from Canada and also other countries.

Table 1. Top Concentrations by U.S. City Area for the international Born native Canada, 2015-19


Source: MPI tabulation that data from the U.S. Census bureau pooled 2015-19 ACS.

English capability

Canadian immigrants are much an ext likely come be experienced in English than the as whole foreign-born population, i m sorry in 2019 stood at 44.9 million. Only about 3 percent that Canadians ages 5 and over reported restricted English proficiency as of 2019, contrasted to 46 percent of every immigrants. Approximately 80 percent that Canadians speak just English at home, versus 16 percent that the total foreign-born population.

Note: limited English proficiency describes those who indicated on the ACS questionnaire that they spoke English much less than “very well.”

Age, Education, and also Employment

In 2019, Canadian immigrants were on typical older than both the all at once foreign-born population and the U.S. Born. The Canadian median period was 54 years, contrasted to 46 years for all immigrants and also 37 years for the native born. This is because of the greater number of retirement-age Canadians: 30 percent the Canadian immigrant were age 65 or older, versus only 17 percent the the all at once foreign-born populace and 16 percent that the native-born population. Meanwhile, Canadians periods 17 and also below are stood for at around the same price as the immigrant population overall (5 percent and 6 percent, respectively), and much lower than the U.S. Native-born population (about 25 percent).

Figure 4. Age circulation by Origin, 2019


Note: Percentages might not add up to 100 together they space rounded come the nearest entirety number. 

Source: MPI tabulation of data indigenous the U.S. Census office 2019 ACS.

Canadians have higher education rates than both the U.S.- and also overall foreign-born populations. In 2019, 51 percent the Canadian immigrants eras 25 and also older reported having actually at the very least a bachelor’s degree, contrasted to 33 percent of both U.S.- and also foreign-born adults. Notably, Canadian immigrant were much more likely to have actually a graduate or experienced degree contrasted to the various other two groups (23 percent contrasted to 14 percent for all immigrants and also 13 percent for the U.S. Born).

This high education attainment, in part, reflects the paths through which countless Canadians enter the joined States. Canada is the fifth-largest country of beginning for international students enrolled in U.S. Higher education institutions, ~ China, India, south Korea, and Saudi Arabia. Around 26,000 Canadians studied in the United states in college year 2019-20, representing around 2 percent that all global students, follow to the institute of international Education.

Many Canadians also immigrate due to their professional skills. In FY 2020, Canadian citizens accounted for about 1 percent the the 427,000 H-1B temporary work visa petitions authorized by U.S. Citizenship and Immigration solutions (USCIS). This was the third most of any type of country; Indian and also Chinese nationals accounted because that 75 percent and 12 percent, respectively. Canadians are additionally eligible because that NAFTA skilled (TN) visas to work-related in a selection of skilled occupations such as accountants, teachers, and also medical doctors. Return the specific number and the education profile the Canadians ~ above TN visas is not publicly available, most work eligible because that H-1B and TN visas call for at the very least a bachelor’s degree.

Canadians get involved in the labor force at a lower rate than all immigrants and also the U.S.-born population. In 2019, 58 percent the Canadian immigrants periods 16 and older to be in the civilian job force, contrasted to 67 percent the the foreign- and 62 percent of the native-born populations. Those Canadians that were employed to be much an ext likely to be in management, business, science, and arts occupations (see number 5).

Figure 5. Employed employees in the Civilian Labor force (ages 16 and older) through Occupation and Origin, 2019


Source: MPI tabulation the data indigenous the U.S. Census office 2019 ACS.

Income and also Poverty

Canadian immigrants have much higher incomes 보다 the complete foreign- and also native-born populations. In 2019, family members headed by a Canadian immigrant had actually a median income of $89,000, contrasted to $64,000 and $66,000 for all at once immigrant and also U.S.-born households, respectively.

In 2019, Canadian immigrant were less likely to be in poverty (8 percent) than immigrants as whole (14 percent) or the U.S. Born (12 percent).

Immigration Pathways and Naturalization

Canadians are slightly much less likely come be nature U.S. Citizens than all other immigrants. In 2019, 50 percent the Canadian immigrant were nature citizens, compared to 52 percent of every immigrants.

Compared to every immigrants, Canadians are more likely to have arrived prior to 2000. Those long-term U.S. Citizens account for around 60 percent of Canadian immigrants, whereas about 51 percent that the overall foreign-born populace arrived before 2000.

Figure 6. Canadian-Born and also All immigrant in the United says by duration of Arrival, 2019


Source: MPI tabulation of data from the U.S. Census bureau 2019 ACS.

In FY 2019, 11,400 Canadians came to be lawful permanent residents (LPRs), accounting for just 1 percent that the 1 million new green-card holders. Many Canadians who achieve green cards perform so as immediate relatives the U.S. Citizens or through employment. Fifty-three percent the Canadians who obtained a environment-friendly card in 2019 were family members of U.S. Citizens or various other green-card holders. Secondary 44 percent obtained their environment-friendly card through employment-based channels, a rate around three times greater than because that all new LPRs (14 percent) (see number 7).

Figure 7. Immigration Pathways of Canadian-Born and also All legitimate Permanent inhabitants in the unified States, 2019


Notes: prompt relatives that U.S. Citizens include spouses, minor children, and parents of U.S. Citizens. Family-sponsored preferences encompass adult children and also siblings of U.S. Citizens, and spouses and children the green-card holders. The Diversity Visa lottery refers to the program established by the immigration Act the 1990 to allow immigrants from countries with low rates of immigrant to get in the united States; the regulation states that 55,000 diversity vi in full are made obtainable each fiscal year. Individuals born in Canada space not eligible because that the Diversity Visa 2022 lottery.

Source: MPI tabulation that data from room of Homeland security (DHS), 2019 Yearbook of immigration Statistics (Washington, DC: DHS Office of immigrant Statistics, 2020), available online.

Unauthorized Immigrant Population

The Migration plan Institute (MPI) estimates that roughly 57,000 unauthorized immigrants from Canada resided in the United states as of 2018, accountancy for much less than 1 percent that the 11 million unauthorized immigrants in the country.

Click here for an interactive map of the 2018 innocuous immigrant populace in the unified States.

As that December 2020, over there were about 8,000 innocuous Canadian youth and young adults who were eligible because that the Deferred activity for Childhood arrivals (DACA) program, according to MPI estimates. However, only 630 Canadians had DACA status, representing a portion of the virtually 636,400 energetic DACA recipients.

Click here to view the height origin nations of DACA recipients and also their U.S. States of residence.

Health Coverage

Canadians have high health and wellness insurance coverage rates contrasted to both the overall immigrant and native-born populations. In 2019, simply 5 percent of immigrant from Canada were uninsured, compared to 8 percent the the aboriginal born and also 20 percent of the complete foreign born. Canadian immigrants were also more likely come be extended by private health insurance 보다 the overall foreign- and also U.S.-born populations (see figure 8). 

Figure 8. Wellness Coverage because that Canadian-Born Immigrants, every Immigrants, and also the U.S. Born, 2019


Note: The sum of share by kind of insurance money is most likely to be higher than 100 because people might have an ext than one kind of insurance.

Source: MPI tabulation that data from the U.S. Census office 2019 ACS.


The Canadian diaspora in the United states is comprised of roughly 3.1 million individuals who to be either born in Canada or report Canadian ancestry or race, follow to tabulations indigenous the U.S. Census office 2019 ACS.

Click here to check out the optimal 20 diaspora groups in the united States.


Canadians life abroad and also others with connections to the country sent about U.S. $911 million in remittances come Canada via formal networks in 2020, according to World financial institution estimates. That represents an approximately U.S. $400 million decrease from 2019, which is likely an affect of the COVID-19 pandemic and also related financial crisis. Remittances had actually otherwise remained largely stable in the last decade and also represented just 0.1 percent that the country’s gross residential product (GDP) in 2020.

Figure 9. Yearly Remittance operation to Canada, 1990-2020


Note: The 2020 number represents World financial institution estimates.

Source: MPI tabulations of data indigenous the World bank Prospects Group, “Annual Remittances Data,” might 2021 update.

Click here to see an interactive chart showing annual remittances received and also sent by Canada and other countries.


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Gibson, Campbell J. And also Kay Jung. 2006. Historic Census Statistics on the Foreign-born population of the unified States: 1850-2000. Working paper no. 81, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC, February 2006. Available online.

Institute of global Education. N.d. Open Doors 2020. Accessed may 26, 2021. Available online.

Passell, Jeffrey S. And D’Vera Cohn. 2019. Mexicans decrease to less than fifty percent the U.S. Unauthorized populace for the very first Time. Washington, DC: Pew research Center. Available online.

United Nations population Division. N.d. Global Migrant stock by Destination and Origin. Accessed might 10, 2021. Available online.

U.S. Census Bureau. N.d. 2019 American community Survey. Accessed might 15, 2020. Available online.

U.S. Census Bureau and Statistics Canada. 1990. Current population Reports, collection P-23, No. 161: Migration between the united States and Canada. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. Available online.

U.S. Citizenship and also Immigration services (USCIS). 2020. Counting of active DACA Recipients by country of Birth as of Dec. 31, 2020. Available online.

---. 2021. Characteristics the H-1B Specialty Occupation Workers: fiscal Year 2020 yearly Report come Congress. Washington, DC: USCIS. Available online.

U.S. Department of Homeland security (DHS), Office of immigrant Statistics. 2020. 2019 Yearbook of immigrant Statistics. Washington, DC: DHS Office of immigration Statistics. Available online.

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World financial institution Prospects Group. 2021. Annual Remittances Data, might 2021 update. Available online.