Submitted: June 14th 2017Reviewed: October fourth 2017Published: December 20th 2017

DOI: 10.5772/

Home > books > Volcanoes - Geological and Geophysical Setting, Theoretical Aspects and also Numerical Modeling, Applications come Industry and Their influence on the human Health

This thing discusses the unique qualities of the volcano eruptions in Indonesia. We understand that Indonesia has actually 147 volcanoes and also 76 of castle are energetic volcanoes and also spread follow me the islands of Java, Lesser Sunda, Sumatra, and also Celebes. The features of Indonesian volcanoes are quite distinctive in regards to the formation process, eruption phenomenon, and also the resulting organic disasters. Most volcanoes in Indonesia consists stratovolcanoes, but this walk not mean that the resulting eruptions are constantly explosive and they have actually a long period. This can be seen from the activity of Semeru that always erupts effusively every day, Sinabung that has a very short eruption period, Tangkuban Perahu eruption the occurs suddenly with the lack of early on signs, and Merapi and Kelud that have actually eruption duration that is gaining shorter. Based upon the outcomes of our examine it deserve to be recognized that the species of volcano eruption are affected by the framework of the ingredient rocks of the volcanoes. However, the existence of external manage factors in the kind of large earthquakes will impact their periodicity. The big earthquakes can influence the security of the magma chamber that can cause a premature eruption.

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1. Introduction

Indonesia is one of the equatorial nations located in the Pacific Ring of Fire. These locations have created a horseshoe of approximately 40,000km (25,000miles) from south America to north America v the Bearing Strait, Japan increase to brand-new Zealand. Along the Ring the Fire, there are 452 volcanoes, of i beg your pardon 75% space in active status. It have the right to be stated that Indonesia is a nation having the most active volcanoes in the world.

Indonesia has actually a an excellent number that volcanoes in the world. There room 147 volcanoes, and also 76 of them room the active volcanoes and also spread follow me the archipelago of Sumatra, Java, Celebes, and Lesser Sunda (Figure 1). This way Indonesia has actually a tremendous possibility to challenge eruption catastrophe in following future. It can be stated that Indonesia is the windows of volcano world.


Figure 1.

The map of volcanoes distribution in Java and also Sumatera Island (

The volcanic eruption is just one of the terrible species of natural tragedies in Indonesia. In addition to the high casualties, the eruption catastrophe is additionally followed by large-scale facilities damage and also by alters in social institutions and also in the long-term economic impact. One instance is the eruption of mountain Sinabung. Based on the document from the center for Volcanology and also Geological risk Mitigation or Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG), Sinabung has displayed the eruptive task since 2010 till now. Hot clouds (Indonesian=wedus gembel) and also volcanic ash are constantly the end of volcano ventilation. They damage most the the surrounding farming areas roughly the mountain. In enhancement to the financial impact, this problem is also an extremely unfavorable because that the emotional community. They live in the zero of are afraid of eruption disaster.

Besides the Sinabung eruption, Indonesia has 20 most active volcanoes that Merapi, Kaba, Kerinci, Anak Krakatau, Papandayan, Slamet, Bromo, Semeru, Batur, Rinjani, Sangeang Api, Rokatenda, Egon, Soputan, Lokon, Gamalama, Dukono, Karangetang, Ibu, and Talang. Return the level that awesomeness is no as large as the previous disaster, the influence of the eruption top top the atmosphere and society is quite alarming. This is an extremely disturbing to life and also economic security of the community roughly the volcanoes. Based on the document from the an international database on herbal and technical disaster or emergency events database (EMDAT), volcanic eruption is the 3rd greatest disaster in Indonesia after ~ flooding and also earthquakes and also has the 2nd highest variety of casualties after ~ the earthquakes (Figure 2).


Figure 2.

Disaster influence in Indonesia indigenous 1900 come 2016 (modified indigenous EMDAT, 2016) <1>.

The characteristics of Indonesian volcanoes space enticing in terms of the formation processes, eruption phenomena, and generated impacts. Usually, the types of volcanoes are represented by stratovolcanoes. They to be shaped as results of subduction that the earth crust in subduction zones, yet this go not mean that the resulting eruption is constantly explosive and in lengthy periods. This can be viewed from the task of Semeru as a stratovolcano the erupts every work effusively with low explosive. Rather from Sinabung reasonably have quick eruption duration and also are unpredictable when it stops. Tangkuban Perahu eruption features arisen suddenly, reflecting weak early stage signs. Merapi and Kelud have an increasingly quick eruption period.

These phenomena are really interesting come be disputed in depth. Beginning from eruption parameters until neighboring impact, over there are countless unanswered questions around the idiosyncrasy of volcanoes in Indonesia. This thing will describe in detail the features of several volcanoes and also their affect on the environment and also society. V the study, it is intended to provide an summary of the volcano eruption phenomena in Indonesia.


2. The file of characteristic volcanic eruption in Indonesia

Some instances of Indonesian volcanoes are thought about to have actually differences compared with the volcanoes in general, among others, Merapi, Semeru, Kelud, Tangkuban Perahu, and Sinabung. The five volcanoes represent the discrepancy the the qualities of hundreds of volcanoes in Indonesia. The first four volcanoes occur on the Java Island, while mountain Sinabung is located on the Sumatra island.

Mount Merapi is a big Quaternary stratovolcano that is located in Sunda arc <2>. That is recognized as the most active volcano in the world and is thought about the most dangerous volcano with pyroclastic flows produced by the please of the lava domes <3>. The mountain is one andesitic volcano and also located in central sector the Java <4>, between the Java Sea and the Indian Ocean, having actually a height of 2986m over the sea level (Figure 3). The Merapi is located on 7o 32′30″ southern latitude and 110o 26′ 30″ east longitude and lies in a subduction zone between the Indo-Australian and also Eurasian plates. This place has controlled the volcanic activity in Sumatra, Java, Bali, and Lesser Sunda <5>.


Figure 3.

Merapi location map in central of Java (

Mount Merapi is a volcanic cone having a magma ingredient from basaltic come basaltic-andesitic <6>, through silica content (SiO2) ranging in between 52 and also 56%. Based on the silica content, it can be resumed the the eruption of mountain Merapi is mildly explosive. The nature the the basaltic andesitic magma is qualified to flow from quick to not too lengthy distances and to destroy the surrounding settlements.

The unique characteristics of the eruption of Merapi deserve to be viewed from the changes in the eruptive cycle. As displayed in figure 4, since the sixteenth century, mount Merapi erupted 80 times v a period of 4years and a staying time of around 1–18years. From the starting eruption till the mid-eighteenth century, Merapi eruption index tended to increase yet decreased in the mid-nineteenth century and also increased in turn in the early on twentieth century, through the volcanic explosivity table of contents (VEI) ranging in between 1 and also 2.


Figure 4.

Merapi eruption statistics due to the fact that the eighteenth century <8>.

The longest period of quiescence the the Merapi volcano was videotaped in the eighteenth century, as soon as the eruptions had a low index. In the center of the twentieth century, the Merapi eruptions were continual with the emplacement that effusive lava domes and also generated pyroclastic materials having actually a small volume <7>. The pyroclastic flows overcame the eruptions in the twenty century, yet much bigger eruptions developed in the nineteenth century. Back the regular interval is shorter, the Merapi explosivity table of contents was consistent at every eruption duration and suddenly raised reaching the highest possible index (VEI 4) in the 2010 eruption (Figure 4).

The most dangerous eruption from Merapi is the warm cloud (Indonesian=wedus gembel). It is said “wedus gembel” since the resulting warm clouds space clumps like wool. This warm cloud is a pyroclastic circulation generated native the lava dome fall as result of mixtures in between hot gases and also volcanic particles and moving down the slopes the volcanoes v high speed <9>. The temperature of the hot clouds range between 500 and also 600°C and also they are capable to relocate at speed of as much as 100km/h. The high temperature of hot clouds can burn every the surrounding objects.

The eruption is also owned through Semeru. Semeru is one of the most energetic volcanoes in eastern Java. This hill is far better known together the top of Mahameru because it has highest hills on the Java island <10>. Semeru is located on 08′06.5′ south latitude and 112°55′ eastern longitude. It has actually a height of 3676m above sea level. The is a stratovolcano composed of andesitic rocks, v a silica content ranging between 46.5 and 60%.

Mount Semeru eruption was recorded due to the fact that 1818 through an median eruption duration ranging in between 1 and 3years. The features of the Semeru eruption are various from that of Merapi. The kind of eruption that the Semeru is Strombolian, due to the fact that it involves the fragmentation of short viscosity basaltic magma by volatile degassing <9>. Various other volcanological researches have argued that the Semeru eruption type is vulcanian v VEI ranging in between 2 and 3, since it has created eruption columns, lava dome growth, and tiny pyroclastic circulation <11>, has produced basaltic glow lavas; and was add by warm clouds. The best eruption developed in 1944. The eruption caused a hot cloud v a volume that 6.8 million m3 and also the variety of victims the the hot cloud got to seven civilization <5>.

Semeru is recognized as liquid lava that always comes out every day. Figure 5 mirrors the ar map of Semeru and also drainage channel that was built in 2010. This lava course leads to S and also SE volcano, i m sorry is a densely inhabited settlement.


Figure 5.

Semeru map and drainage channel (

Since 1967, on average, every 15min over there is one eruption through a short explosivity table of contents <12>. However, the eruption of mount Semeru is thought about not dangerous. The local government still permits tourists to carry out climbing activities that usually begin from the town of Ranu Pane, located to the north of the volcano. People approximately Mount Semeru think if eruptions take place every day, Semeru remains safe because it will certainly not be possible to erupt on a big scale. The increasing frequency of the Semeru eruption is becoming a distinct geological phenomenon in Indonesia that is being investigated through volcanologists regarded its causal factors.

The eruption characteristics is also experienced through Sinabung. It has happened in the last years and also has to be very daunting to predict. Mount Sinabung is part of an ancient volcano (Toba) and has an altitude the 2460 m asl, and also the peak location is in 3o10’ North and also 98o23.5′ east latitude. The mountain was formed because of a fracture top top the northwestern leaf of the basin of mount Toba <5>. The is situated on the Sumatra Island belt developed from the Indo-Australian bowl subduction process under the Eurasiatic bowl <13>.

Sinabung includes a stratovolcano reflecting its activity after a period of quiescence the 400years <3>. This type of volcanic edifice is defined by a tall conical building structure and is developed by countless layers the hardened lavas, tephra, pumices, and volcanic ashes <14>. The attributes of the Sinabung eruption are various from that of the other volcanoes in Indonesia. In addition, lock are daunting to predict, back a fairly short expression of the eruption has been observed. One of the volcanic commodities of Sinabung is a warm cloud qualified of damaging the surrounding atmosphere (Figure 6).

Figure 6.

Sinabung eruption with hot clouds <15>.

The relationships in between the Sinabung and the Toba volcanoes are really close. This context can be recognized from the structure of their constituent rocks. Based upon the outcomes of the morphologic study of the Sinabung rocks, it can be known that the basement the the Sinabung volcanites consists of limestones and also of the pyroclastic deposits of Toba <5>. This lithologies should have managed the Sinabung eruptions the were constantly accompanied by special eruptive commodities with a reasonably high frequency of eruption.

On the other hand, mount Kelud is one of the energetic volcanoes in eastern Java. Currently it has gone into into a period of quiescence after a significant eruption developed in 2014. Although the altitude of the volcano is lower than Merapi, Semeru, and also Sinabung (1731masl), mount Kelud is additionally classified together a stratovolcano. This mountain was formed after the subduction the the Indo-Australian and also Eurasian plates. Mountain Kelud eruption to be known as result of the volume that ashes that were dispersed widely until the radius, reaching hundreds of kilometers and also covering almost every one of the Java Island (Figure 7). Besides flowing lavas and resulting ashes, the eruption disaster additionally comes native the mud flows and also from the floods that damages the surrounding environment.

Figure 7.

Distribution the Kelud ash in Java <15>.

The eruption phase of Kelud is fine ordered relatively and gained into a rest duration after a major eruption in 2014. The Kelud activity is tho present. This have the right to be viewed from the various indicators of volcanic activity that were tape-recorded by the surveillance officer. One of the exciting natural phenomena is the birth of the Kelud son (Anak Kelud), which developed during the 2007 eruption. It indicates that the volcano is still active.

The qualities of the Kelud eruption were affected by the silica content, reasonably high. The eruption kind is Pelean, meeting by special lava bursts containing an ext than 66% SiO2 <16> that inhibit the circulation of gas and steam. This causes good shocks throughout eruptions and produces a really high explosive sound, which can disturb the upper atmosphere layers (ionosphere) <17>. The body framework of Kelud is more powerful than the other volcanoes. The volcanic assets are stood for by pyroclastic rocks due to flows, fall-out, or lavas through the composition of K-basalts and also K-andesites. This ingredient controls the aspect that the probability the lava dome collapses is small, so that the hot clouds are not created from the Kelud eruption.

Figure 8 reflects the Kelud eruption task during the twenty century, as soon as the times of eruption to be getting much shorter and shorter. Based on this figure, it deserve to be predicted that the Kelud volcano will certainly erupt again at intervals of around 21.3years. Climate the next eruption is predicted to occur after 2030.

Figure 8.

An term of eruption of Kelud after twentieth century <5>.

The following interesting conversation deals with the eruption the Tangkuban Perahu. This is one of the active volcanoes in Indonesia. That is a stratovolcano situated on the highland area of Bandung West Java, v the elevation of 2087masl (Figure 9). Tangkuban Perahu was created from the calderic fallen of the Sunda hill <18>. Rows of hills when viewed from a street looks choose a boat upside down and then were dubbed Tangkuban Perahu, which method an upside under boat.

Figure 9.

Tangkuban Perahu place in West Java (

The effusive pattern of the eruption v minimal indications makes the eruption of Tangkuban Perahu rather unique. Besides, it has a good geothermal potential, and also the eruption attributes of this volcano are various from that of the other volcanoes in Indonesia. Since the nineteenth century, the eruption of Tangkuban Perahu volcano is phreatic by producing ash without lava flow, hot clouds, or incandescent rocks. However, that does not typical that the eruption of mountain Tangkuban Perahu is not dangerous for the people approximately it. Among the eruption commodities to watch out for space the poisonous gases CO, CO2, and also SO2 that injury human health or even cause death if inhaled in large quantities.

The large eruption the Tangkuban Perahu occurred in the eighteenth century through spewing material eruption enough and until the development of eight crater lakes. After that eruption, its task became weak. One of the uniqueness that the eruption the Tangkuban Perahu to be the lack of eruption signs that to be not an extremely clear. Occasionally only detect the appearance of earthquakes nervous by monitoring stations authorize the volcano have been erupted. This renders it very daunting for volunteer observers to identify the eruption status. However, the weak eruption still renders an eruption activity not also dangerous to the neighboring community.

3. The transforms of volcanoes’ actions in Indonesia

Volcanoes and earthquakes space interconnected phenomena. But, in general, earthquake is one of the physical parameters to identify volcanic activity. If the quantity and frequency the the earthquake space higher, it have the right to be stated that the activity of the volcano is higher too. This earthquake is called a volcano earthquake. Based upon the results of the recent geological research, one earthquake can affect the task of the volcano, specifically the earthquake that has a high Richter scale (RS) rating <19>. Earthquakes with good power influence the viscosity the magma and also eruption layout <7>.

The results of the earthquakes top top the eruptive habits are knowledgeable by number of volcanoes in the world. Based upon the results of ahead studies, the was displayed that the big earthquakes adhered to by the eruptive task include the earthquakes in the Hawaiian Islands, complied with by Kilauea and also Mauna Loa volcanic eruptions, the Landers earthquake, which triggered the eruption that Caldera long Valley in 1992 and also Denali Earthquake in 2002, triggering a neighborhood volcanic activity in north America <20>.

Figure 10 shows the distinctions of volcano eruption trends before and also after large earthquakes. Before the earthquakes, the volcano eruption approximately the earthquake areas had a large time interval and the eruption frequency small. On the contrary, after the earthquakes, the eruption time interval often tends to be little and the frequency large.

Figure 10.

Scatter chart of the relationship between the distance and time that eruption (a) before and (b) after ~ the earthquake in Kuril and Kamchatka islands <20>.

The influence of large earthquakes on transforms in volcanic habits is additionally experienced in Indonesia. In 2001 and also 2006, the main Java region experienced one earthquake v a strength of 6.3 RS.The earthquake in 2001 resulted in the increase of Merapi fumarole temperature, if the earthquake in the year that 2006 caused the rise of magma extrusion and pyroclastic circulation <21>.

One instance of alters in volcano eruption habits is mount Merapi. It is one of the most active stratovolcanoes in Indonesia identified by the development of lava domes and dome falls accompanied by dangerous pyroclastic flows <22>. End the previous decade, Merapi had actually a small eruption every 2–6years with an average VEI 6–4×106m3) <23>.

The transforms in volcano eruptive actions in Indonesia have the right to be viewed both native the VEI and also the repose time (Figure 11). As a basic rule, the longer the repose time that the volcano, the bigger the eruptive activity, however it’s not so now. This declare is supported by a research that discussed that the repose time walk not influence the volcano eruption table of contents in Indonesia <24>.

4. The eruption crisis of Indonesian volcanoes in the critical decade

Indonesia can not be separated native the volcano phenomenon <25>. This is a an effect as one equatorial state located at the conference of three huge plates (Eurasian, Indo-Australian, and also Pacific) (Figure 12). The three plates collide v each other (the Indo-Australian bowl slips under Eurasia); therefore, Indonesia i do not care the epicenter the earthquakes, volcanic tracks, and also faults or ruptures <26>. Plate meeting areas enable for earthquakes and other disaster.

Figure 12.

Indonesia is located in between three vast plates, such as the Eurasian plate, the Pacific plate, and also the Indo-Australian key (Indonesia geology map library, 2017).

Being a country prone to eruption disaster, 10% of the Indonesian population lives in a volcanic region <27>. This condition is potential for huge casualties once the eruptions occur. The Merapi eruption, which occurred in 2010, consisted of a large eruption v the fatality of 386 residents and about 17,000 human being facing respiratory problems <28>.

The volcano eruption activity in Indonesia has actually a diverse impact on the environment. The critical 5 year of eruption that Merapi, Kelud, and Sinabung produced abundant materials that are valuable for soil fertility. But many problems arise from excessive material eruptions, such together lava floods that have the right to endanger the neighboring community. The volcanic commodities can pose a significant disaster if that affects people, agricultural areas, transportation and also facility networks, and other social infrastructure <29>. Explosive eruption of volcanic through VEI>3 as experienced by Kelud in the eruption of 2014. Volcano material and also gas of the mount can straight reach the elevation of the stratosphere <30>, where aerosols continue to be for a long time, affecting the weather and also climate <31, 32, 33>.

Aerosol stratosphere plays vital role in climate regulation and also atmospheric chemistry <34>. The gas emissions significantly impact the atmosphere at different scales, depending on the degree of the gas emissions eliminated from the source prior to the deposition <35>. The explosive eruption injects sulfur into the stratosphere in the form of SO2 and H2S that bind to kind aerosol (H2SO4) <36>.

In small eruptions, sulfate aerosols created after SO2 oxidizes to form H2SO4 and can rise Earth’s albedo through scattering short-wave radiation <37>. This greatly helps the global temperature drop.

Some volcanoes to watch the end for in the critical decade are Sinabung. Based on PVMBG data on the review report of volcanic task level taped in June 2017, there to be one volcano in ~ level IV, 5 volcanoes in ~ level III, 17 volcanoes in ~ level II, and also 49 volcanoes at common (level I). The eruption form of mountain Sinabung is a vulcanian that is identified by a smoke cloud together high as 5–6km and effusive lava and causes the evacuation the 12,000 inhabitants <38>. Based on data that BNPB, short-term losses due to eruption of mount Sinabung since 2013 until 2014 reached 1.49 sunshine <15>. A big number together a result of continual eruption and also due to a consistent and unpredictable eruption have actually a negative impact on the ar psychology about Sinabung. Substantially reducing hazards is necessary in bespeak to minimize the damage <39>.

In general, the variety of people affected because of an eruption is relatively larger contrasted to other natural disasters in Indonesia. Based upon Figure 13, the best eruption-affected population is top top the island of Java. As soon as of the threats of the volcanic eruption in Indonesia with all that characteristics and changes, there requirements to be an improvement of the pattern of improving public preparedness in encountering it. One means of doing that is by occurring a sample of mitigation right into adaptation. Adaptation to the setting is indispensable when danger is inescapable <40>. The human being must be conscious that besides the blessings offered by the volcano, there are hidden disasters that will come any type of time. If the civilization are more aware of the environment about the volcano, they more certainly will certainly be much safer in the face of danger.

5. Mitigation experience and public preparedness

Almost all the nations that have actually volcanoes will confront the problems of eruption disaster and also Indonesia is right now experiencing it. The problem of managing eruption disaster in Indonesia lies in the high variety of people living roughly the volcanoes <41>. As result of the boost of populace around the volcano, the affect of eruptions on areas increased. This problem is obtaining worse due to lack of windy awareness that the eruption disaster.

Merapi eruption endure in 2010 left a bitter memory for the history of volcano eruption in Indonesia. Together a result of eruptions and hot clouds, approximately 277 human being were killed <42>. But this number is relatively smaller 보다 the vault eruption victims. It all counts on the level that eruption that occurred. The higher level of volcanic eruption have an impact on the much more damage. However, the variety of victims will be reduced if catastrophe mitigation is fine implemented.

The qualities of eruptive calamities differ from one catastrophe to the other natural disasters. Castle may happen at any time and also they are daunting to guess <43>. The lack of historic data that Indonesia volcano eruption causes the ready in the face of eruption disaster have to be improved. This have to be done to anticipate volcanic actions changes the occur frequently lately.

The challenging case is predicting volcanic activity of the Sinabung eruption. The Sinabung activity is challenging to predict. After ~ it gone into a 400-year remainder period, Sinabung has erupted repetitively until now. The government continues maximizing the techniques and also monitoring tools of the volcano through providing much more accurate information in accordance through the latest volcanic task in Indonesia. This is carefully related come mitigation efforts of the community.

The Indonesia federal government has enforced six step in initiatives to minimize the victim of eruption catastrophes (Figure 14). This was done to support the accuracy and also speed in offering services come the culture in the face of eruption disaster. Research study is conducted to analysis eruption model to support beforehand warning system. Mapping that geophysical risks to develop disaster maps that room indispensable because that identifying catastrophe areas. Socialization to build public awareness and also knowledge in eruption catastrophe areas. Monitoring has actually been excellent to observe, record, and also analyze volcano activity. Beforehand warning device (EWS) to describe the condition of volcanic task and quick an answer team (QRT) to advice the condition of volcano during the crisis and also the results were gift to the government and also the community.

Figure 14.

Step of geological hazard mitigation initiative in Indonesia.

The ide of eruptive catastrophe mitigation in Indonesia is fine developed. One of the handlings that was thought about successfully through the international community is the evacuation of the population due come eruption of Merapi that emerged in 2010, the eruption the Kelud in 2014 without a victim, and the Sinabung eruption in 2017. There is a significant decrease of ns of lives from the successful mitigation of the government.

The success of mitigation in Indonesia deserve to be viewed in Table 1. Based upon the table, over there is a significant relationship between the variety of casualties and the evacuated people. If the variety of people evacuated is larger, climate the victim of eruption come to be smaller.

CountermeasuresTime periodNumber that refugeesFatalities
No mitigation activity yet1700–19200More than 150,000
There has been a countermeasure system yet not however perfect1950–1979More than 50001613
The countermeasure system is good, using contemporary equipment to monitor volcano, interaction network is good, publicly understanding about the danger of eruption has increased1980–2004232,197105

The greatest difficulty in implementing the catastrophe mitigation regime in Indonesia is the awareness that the neighborhood government and the community. The difficulties of eruption are not just the obligation of community or federal government separately, yet it likewise becomes part of all components of the nation together. Every one of them need to be associated in finding solutions. If all the components of the nation act in accordance with their role, Indonesia will certainly be much better prepared to confront the challenges of eruption in the future.

6. Disaster threat reduction based on ethno mitigation

Indonesian society has a various perspective on volcano. Volcano is taken into consideration as a depiction of greatness and also beauty. Its visibility is an extremely important because that the life that the world who live around. The areas on the slopes of the mountains have actually the id that the eruptions cannot be separated indigenous the donation of superordinary forces. This have the right to be watched from the id of the human being on the slopes of Merapi. They thought that mount Merapi is not simply a mountain, but a settlement of spiritual us or invisible spirits <44>.

Volcano disaster offers a coherent example of exactly how communities apply cultures, religions, and ceremonies to communicate and also remember disaster risks and mitigation techniques <45>. Yet the understanding of the society is based upon myth only and it is not based upon scientific knowledge and the visibility of the society is not widely construed by the community. The culture role is really important to minimize disaster risk and also people’s vulnerability <46>.

The ritual offerings tradition was packaged inlocal society by involving nearly all elements of culture that space able come build solid emotional bonds between communities around the mountain. The mindset of togetherness and also mutual teamwork are very important in structure community resilience in the confront of eruption. The society of mutual cooperation promotes positive values such as social harmony and mutually useful relationships in ~ disaster-affected areas.

Local people’s understanding of the volcano environment around additionally greatly contributes to the success that the eruption disaster. Based on information native the people who live on the slopes of Kelud, the is well-known that the animals that descended the slope because of the eruption the Kelud encompass wasps, birds, monkeys, deer, and pythons. The transforms in pet behavior were caused by the changes of ecological conditions, including higher local temperatures, raised gases concentration (it can reason disruption of pet respiratory systems), and increasingly polluted environment as result of the aerosols released. These indicators are an extremely important because that local civilization in predicting eruptions.

Each or group of pets has a specific frequency range <47>. Birds are unable come hear the ultrasonic sound (>20,000Hz) yet they are capable of hearing an infrasonic sound (48>. These certain frequencies are supplied by pets to identify unknown dangers from surrounding environments. Based on the review of some literatures, the threshold frequencies that various pets are gift in Table 2.

No.Animal nameFamilyThreshold frequency (Hz)
4.Birds the KneeAves200–4000

Bangbara has the ability to hear high-frequency (ultrasonic) sounds, deer and also mountain chimpanzees are able to respond to sound at a tool level or equal to the listening (audiosonic), and also birds and pythons space able come hear infrasound frequencies. When volcanoes started to activate by create gas through high-frequency sound waves, only Bangbara wasps responded to these and this frequency level cannot be heard through others.

The python has the shortest threshold frequency contrasted to other animals. This causes the line to have the ability to respond come low-frequency vibrations. In addition, python snakes crawl top top the ground and are less sensitive to transforms in temperature and also air conditions. The python is much more sensitive to the vibrations it senses through its body 보다 the smell with the nose <49>. At the time of vibration led to by the volcanic task with raising amplitude, the line will soon evade. This condition can it is in a final marker as soon as the Kelud will erupt.

The capacity of pets around the slopes of Kelud in solution to environmental transforms can be arranged in sequence based upon the level and also speed of response. Transforms in animal behavior are very interesting to it is in studied much more deeply. The is really likely to be a timeless volcanic eruption warning device or traditional volcanic alarm level (TVAL). This system will be more easily connected to the human being on the slope of Kelud together it is in accordance v the regional knowledge and indispensable together a consideration in making decision <50>.

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Local wisdom the mountain community is an extremely potential as a an easy in emerging disaster hazard reduction version that suits through the attributes of the neighborhood community. In addition to preserving local wisdom together a local culture, it can aid communities to face the eruption disaster.