how did the world begin? just how will it end?

Scientists think the universe began with a bang. A large bang. The big Bang theory (no, not the TV show) is the many widely accepted theory for how the world started. Just how it will certainly end…that’s a “dark” mystery.

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Wait, begin at the beginning. The everything.

The huge Bang theory says that the universe came right into being native a single, unimaginably hot and also dense point (aka, a singularity) more than 13 billion year ago. That didn’t take place in an currently existing space. Rather, that initiated the expansion—and cooling—of space itself.


Credit: NASA, ESA, the Hubble heritage Team (STScI/AURA), A. Nota (ESA/STScI), and also the Westerlund 2 scientific research Team

It account for plenty of of the points astronomers see v ground- and space-based telescopes. It defines why various other galaxies are moving away from united state as room continues to expand. It accounts for a faint glow seen all over in the universe. (The light is the leftover heat from the universe’s birth, currently cooled to just a couple of degrees over absolute zero.) In short, it’s a remarkably an effective and elegant explanation of how the observable universe pertained to be.


The theory accounts because that the production of the lightest elements in the universe—hydrogen, helium, and lithium—from which every heavier elements were forged in stars and supernovas. An extension of the huge Bang, known as cosmic inflation, even explains why the world is therefore homogeneous (evenly composed) and also how galaxies are distributed across space.


Not that kind of inflation. Many features of today’s world make sense if an are underwent an extraordinary expansion an extremely early in the history. According to inflation theory, the cosmos expanded drastically a tiny portion of a second after the huge Bang, moved by great quantities the energy consisted of in space itself. After ~ this duration of inflation, the universe ongoing to expand and cool, however at a far slower pace.

Inflation stretched room out so quickly that it became extremely uniform. But an are is not completely homogeneous. Small fluctuations in the thickness of matter present in the an extremely early cosmos were massively amplified during inflation. These density fluctuations eventually produced the large structure the the universe, including good sheets, bubbles, and also clusters of galaxies.


That’s the start. What around how the cosmos will end?

The concept of a huge Bang doesn’t indicate whether the cosmos will proceed to expand and also cool or whether it will at some point contract to an additional super-hot singularity, probably restarting the entire cycle. The ultimate fate the the universe likely depends top top the properties of 2 mysterious phenomena known as dark matter and dark energy. More study that both might reveal even if it is the world will end in fire—or ice.


Like a background book the galaxies, this NASA video clip starts with a view of the thousands of galaxies in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field, then progressively zooms out to expose the 265,000 galaxies in the bigger Hubble heritage Field. Based upon observations indigenous the Hubble room Telescope, the galaxies shown here stretch back through 13.3 billion years of time to just 500 million year after the huge Bang. Credit


All acquainted matter—Earth, the rest of the solar system, stars, galaxies, and also interstellar gas—accounts for only around one-sixth of the fixed of the universe. Scientists deserve to see the results of the remainder of the universe’s mass, i m sorry they call dark matter. Its existence in galaxies makes them rotate an ext quickly than if just normal issue were there, and also high concentrations of that noticeably bending light coming from much away. But its nature continues to be a mystery.


Dark matter may consist of elementary particles created in the huge Bang yet not however detected on Earth. One reason physicists desire to build much more powerful particle accelerators is to search for these absent particles.

Even more mysterious 보다 dark issue is a force known as dark energy.


This isn’t science fiction. Observations of remote supernovae imply that an are is permeated by one energy—called dark energy—that pushes objects apart, simply as two positive electrical charges repel every other. This mysterious entity, which accounts for much more than 70% of the power content the the universe, might be pertained to the power that brought about inflation.

But this particular day virtually naught is known about what dark power is or just how it exerts its results on matter. Explaining it may require entirely new concepts of an are and time.


How have astronomers learned around the at an early stage universe?

When astronomers look v a telescope, they are looking ago in time. They view the Andromeda galaxy, the nearest major galaxy come ours, no as that is today but as the was an ext than 2 million years ago, due to the fact that that’s just how long it has actually taken the galaxy’s light to take trip through room to Earth.

Other galaxies are lot farther far in space and time. The Hubble room Telescope can see galaxies the are much more than 13 billion year old and also formed not lengthy after the big Bang. Observations have actually been do of the cosmic microwave background, the faint glow left end from the big Bang, that help to obtain a photo of what the early universe was like, especially before those very first stars formed.


Where carry out we walk from here?

Astronomers are now planning a suite of brand-new space- and ground-based telescopes and also smaller-scale equipment and research. With these tools, they arrangement to research dark matter and also dark energy, the black holes in ~ the center of galaxies, the formation of planets favor Earth about other stars, and also many other facets of our astonishing universe.


An artist’s rendering of one of NASA’s brand-new telescopes—the James Webb room Telescope. When it launches in 2021, it will use an effective infrared vision come peer into the deep universe.Credit


Take a deep dive

Ready for the specifics? take a look at New Worlds, brand-new Horizons in Astronomy and also Astrophysics.

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a. A little more than 13 billion year oldb. Nearly 26 billion year oldc. Just over 500,000 years old
1. According to the large Bang theory, about how old is the universe?

a. A little much more than 13 billion years oldThe big Bang theory approximates the cosmos is around 13 billion years old.
a. The creation of the lightest facets in the world (hydrogen, helium, and also lithium)b. Why room continues come contractc. A pass out glow seen everywhere in the universe
2. The huge Bang concept accounts for all of the adhering to except:

b. Why room continues come contract

The world is expanding, no contracting. The large Bang theory defines why other galaxies are moving away native us during the expansion.
a. Climate change on Earthb. Whether there is life on other planetsc. The nature of dark matter and also dark energy
3. The fate that the universe most likely depends on:

c. The nature of dark matter and also dark energy
Dark matter and also dark energy are still mysterious entities yet scientists think they host the crucial to understanding just how the universe will end.
4. As soon as astronomers look with a telescope, castle are:

c. Looking earlier in time light coming from also the nearest major galaxy, Andromeda, is traveling together a substantial distance, the takes much more than 2 million year to reach Earth. For this reason what astronomers see v a telescope is what to be happening in the past.
a. A theory around how conveniently the universe broadened right ~ the big Bangb. An increase in the cost of space-related equipment, such together telescopesc. A theory around how the atmosphere came to be filled with air
5. What is inflation (in space, no economics)?

a. A theory about how conveniently the universe increased right ~ the huge BangThe inflation theory describes why the universe looks remarkably similar in every direction. Inflation stretched space out so easily that it ended up being extremely uniform.