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Born:May 26, 1907Iowa...(Show more)Died:June 11, 1979 (aged 72)Los AngelesCalifornia...(Show more)Awards and Honors:Presidential Medal of FreedomAcademy award (1970)Academy compensation (1970): actor in a leading RoleCecil B. DeMille award (1966)Golden globe Award (1970): ideal Actor in a Motion snapshot - DramaGolden world Award (1953): people Film Favorites...(Show more)Notable Works:“The Alamo”...(Show more)
John Wayne, byname Duke, original name Marion Michael Morrison (see Researcher’s Note) , (born may 26, 1907, Winterset, Iowa, U.S.—died June 11, 1979, Los Angeles, California), major American motion-picture actor who embodied the picture of the strong, taciturn cowboy or soldier and also who in numerous ways personified the idealized American values of his era.
Marion Morrison to be the son of one Iowa pharmacist; he acquired the nickname “Duke” during his youth and also billed himself as battle each other Morrison for among his early on films. In 1925 the enrolled in ~ the college of southerly California (Los Angeles), wherein he play football. He operated summers at the Fox film Corporation together a propman and developed a friendship v director john Ford, who cast him in some small film roles starting in 1928. His very first leading role—and his very first appearance together “John Wayne”—came in manager Raoul Walsh’s The huge Trail (1930). Throughout the following eight years Wayne starred in an ext than 60 low-budget motion pictures, mostly in roles as cowboys, soldiers, and also other rugged guys of adventure. He reached genuine star stature as soon as Ford actors him as the Ringo boy in the classic western Stagecoach (1939). After that film his ar in American cinema was established and also grew v each succeeding year. Ford’s The lengthy Voyage Home (1940), a film based upon several Eugene O’Neill one-act plays, featured among Wayne’s many praised performances native the at an early stage years that his stardom and also offered further proof of his commanding display screen presence.
Speculation exists regarding whether Wayne deliberately avoided military organization during civilization War II, however evidence argues that his attempts to enlist in the marine were rejected because of his age, one old football injury, and a federal federal government directive to breeze boards come go basic on actors who talents might be used for building morale. He invested the battle years to chat troops overseas and making movies such together the famous action-adventures Flying Tigers (1942), The Fighting Seabees (1944), They to be Expendable (1945), and also Back to Bataan (1945), all of which featured Wayne together quintessentially American fighting males who overcome good odds. He additionally appeared throughout this duration in melodramas such together The Spoilers (1942) and Flame of Barbary Coast (1945). By the end of the war, Wayne was firmly developed as one of Hollywood’s top stars.
John Wayne and also Robert Montgomery in They to be Expendable
John Wayne (left) and also Robert Montgomery in They to be Expendable (1945), directed by john Ford.
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Wayne’s screen image was permanently defined in the many classic films the made with directors Ford and also Howard Hawks throughout the postwar years and also into the beforehand 1960s. For Ford, Wayne starred in what has pertained to be known as the “Cavalry Trilogy”: Fort Apache (1948), She Wore a Yellow Ribbon (1949), and also Rio Grande (1950), 3 elegiac movies in i m sorry Wayne portrays stoic mounties officers that the Old West. Wayne’s duties in these and also other films for Ford market a somewhat complex representation the the American personality in the they exhibition unflagging patriotism yet are disillusioned by, and also resigned to, the innate hypocrisies within America. In this manner the Ford-Wayne films both honour and undermine the mythology that the Old West, nowhere more so than in The Searchers (1956), a film taken into consideration by some to be the best western ever made. Wayne’s character in this movie pursues a noble goal (rescuing his kidnapped niece from a renegade Comanche leader), however his obsessive behaviour and blatant bigotry disclose him to be as mad as he is heroic. Ford’s expedition of the dark underbelly of Old West legends culminated in The guy Who shooting Liberty Valance (1962), a film that both questions and also justifies the “when the reality interferes with the legend, print the legend” ideology of 19th-century journalists of the American West. In all, the Ford-Wayne films existing an Old West rendered obsolete by the very society it assisted to create. Wayne likewise appeared in films for Ford that were not westerns, including standouts such together The Quiet Man (1952) and Donovan’s Reef (1963).