The activist was much an ext than a woman who as soon as refused come cede she seat on a segregated bus, together she spent decades fighting for polite rights.

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Rosa Parks is finest known because that refusing to provide up her seat on a segregated bus in Montgomery, Alabama, in 1955, which sparked a yearlong boycott that was a turning point in the civil legal rights movement. However, there to be much an ext to Parks' life. Born in Alabama in 1913, she flourished up in a segregated human being that constantly exposed her to discrimination. Before her defiant act on that bus, she'd currently fought back against injustice by joining the national Association for the advancement of fancy People (NAACP) and investigating crime committed against Black people.


After the bus boycott, Parks continued to take part in the civil rights movement. She attended the march on Washington in 1963 and in 1965 experienced the signing the the Voting rights Act. Her later years experienced Parks' work recognized with the Presidential Medal that Freedom and also the Congressional yellow Medal.

The adhering to timeline consist of notable occasions and success in Parks' long and remarkable life:

February 4, 1913: Rosa Louise McCauley born in Tuskegee, Alabama to James and Leona McCauley 

1919: A six-year-old Parks starts picking cotton alongside her grandparents. She additionally starts attending a segregated school in pine tree Level, Alabama.


1924: as there is no neighborhood school for Black kids to to visit after the sixth grade, McCauley walk to miss White’s Montgomery commercial School for Girls in Montgomery, Alabama.

1929: Parks leaves institution in the 11th grade to treatment for she ill grandmother and also mother.

1931: when Parks is working as a housekeeper for a white family, a white ar attempts to rape her.

1931: Parks is introduced to Raymond Parks, whom she later defined as being the an initial activist she encountered.

December 18, 1932: Rosa weds Raymond Parks


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A picture of Raymond Parks

Photo: Matt McClain/ The Washington write-up via Getty Images


1933: Parks returns to school and also obtains her high college diploma, a notable achievement at a time when very couple of Black civilization in Alabama hosted this degree.

1941: Parks starts work at Maxwell Air pressure Base, which has an combined cafeteria and also trolley system.

December 1943: Parks joins the Montgomery branch of the NAACP

As the just woman in ~ her first meeting, she is named secretary the the group. Parks' work because that the NAACP will additionally include investigate crimes against Black civilization such together murder, assaults and also police brutality.  


Parks attempts to register to vote but is called she fail the literacy test forced of black voters.

September 1944: Recy Taylor, a black woman, is gang-raped by 6 white men. The Montgomery NAACP dispatches Parks to inspection the case.  

Parks helps create the Committee for same Justice because that the civil liberties of Mrs. Recy Taylor to support for legal activity against Taylor's assailants. The case becomes national news yet the rapists are never convicted.


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Recy Taylor

Photo: ©HBO Documentary Films/Courtesy Everett Collection


1945: After acquisition the required literacy test because that a third time, Parks becomes a registered voter. Yet prior to she can actors a ballot, she need to pay a retroactive poll tax of $1.50 for every year since she reached the voting period of 21.


1948: Parks becomes the Alabama state secretary because that the NAACP.

1949: Parks steps earlier as NAACP secretary come take care of her mother.

1952: Parks return to the Montgomery NAACP and once much more becomes a branch secretary.

August 1955: Parks attends a two-week cultivate session in ~ the Highlander folk School in Tennessee. Alongside other civil rights activists, both Black and white, she discusses just how to incorporate schools adhering to the can be fried Court's Brown v. Plank of Education decision of 1954.

December 1, 1955: In Montgomery, Parks defies a bus driver's order come let a white guy take she seat

The driver, who had treated Parks rudely and evicted she from his bus in 1943, contacts the police and she is arrested.


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Fingerprint card for Rosa Parks

Photo: Universal history Archive/Getty Images


December 5, 1955: despite Parks was not the very first Black woman arrested for defying segregation on city buses, news of her case spurs the Black community to begin a boycott the Montgomery buses.

Parks' trial take away place. She is uncovered guilty and also fined $10, add to $4 in court costs. She lawyers record an appeal.

January 7, 1956: Parks is let walk from her project as a tailor's assistant in ~ the Montgomery Fair department store.


January 1956: Raymond quits his barbershop task after conversation of his wife and also the boycott is forbidden.

February 21, 1956: Along through dozens of other civil legal rights leaders, including Martin Luther King Jr., Parks is indicted for violating a Montgomery law outlawing boycotts.

February 22, 1956: Parks is amongst a team of indicted boycott leaders who present themselves for arrest. She is conveniently released. The case against Parks is eventually dismissed.

1956: throughout the boycott, Parks serves together a dispatcher to coordinate carpools. She also travels across the country to speak about the boycott.

December 21, 1956: Following a can be fried Court ruling that segregated buses room unconstitutional, the 381-day boycott ends. Parks is photographed sitting at the former of a bus because that Look magazine.


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Rosa Parks sit in the front of a bus in Montgomery, Alabama, after the supreme Court ruled segregation illegal ~ above the city bus system on December 21, 1956. The guy sitting behind Parks is Nicholas C. Chriss, a reporter for unified Press international out the Atlanta.

Photo: Getty Images


August 1957: unable to uncover work in Montgomery and also still facing threats for her role in the bus boycott, Parks and her family depart because that Detroit

October 1957: Parks i do not care a hostess at the Holly Tree Inn, component of the Hampton institute in Virginia, yet leaves after the fall semester in 1958 come rejoin she husband and mother in Detroit.


1959: Parks starts doing piecework because that Detroit's Stockton Sewing Company, a task she holds through 1964.


July 1960: A Jet magazine article reveals the Parks and her family members have to be struggling financially, due in part to her health problems.

August 28, 1963: Parks attends the in march on Washington because that Jobs and Freedom. No women are invited come speak at the event, but Parks is among those singled out for a "Tribute come Women" in the civil civil liberties movement.

March 1, 1965: Parks takes a task in the Detroit office of newly elected Congressman john Conyers, wherein her tasks include answering phones and also aiding constituents. She remains in this place until she retirement in 1988.

March 25, 1965: Parks joins the march come Montgomery for same voting rights. Numerous of the marchers execute not identify her yet in the finish she is acknowledged and invited to speak in ~ the capitol building.

August 6, 1965: Parks is amongst those current to evil President lyndon Johnson's signing of the Voting legal rights Act.

July 23, 1967: Parks is in Detroit throughout five days of rioting. Amid the upheaval, she husband's barbershop is destroyed.

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August 30, 1967: A "People's Tribunal" is held concerning the deaths of three young black men throughout the Detroit riots. Parks offer on the jury, which finds the police who were in ~ the scene guilty (the officers faced no such repercussions in the legal system).