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In this Apollo 17 onboard photo, Mission command Eugene A. Cernan adjusts the U.S. Flag deployed ~ above the Moon during the December 1972 lunar landing mission, which significant the last of NASA"s Apollo Moon landings.(Image credit: NASA)
The Apollo regimen was the name of NASA"s job to land human beings on the moon in the 1960s and also early 1970s. V the success of Apollo 11 in 1969, which put astronauts ~ above the lunar surface for the first time in history, the U.S. Was able to declare victory in the an are race against the Soviet Union throughout the Cold War.

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Beginning in 1961, the Apollo program included 11 full audioeditorfree.comflights; 4 of those experiment equipment, and six of the other seven flights landed civilization on the moon, according to NASA. The an initial crewed flight arisen in 1968, and the final mission arisen in 1972.

By the moment the Apollo missions concerned an end, 12 astronauts had walked ~ above or driven over the moon"s surface, conducting scientific research and also snagging rocks to bring ago to researcher on Earth. These samples still being provided to make brand-new discoveries much more than 50 year after they were collected.

Related: The Moon on Earth: Where NASA"s Apollo lunar rocks now?

The Apollo program thrived out of the an are race, a contest that started in 1957 between the capitalist U.S. And also communist Soviet Union over superiority in With the Russians ahead throughout the start of the race, U.S. President man F. Kennedy challenged the newly created NASA come land men on the moon and also return castle safely in his famed 1961 "Moon Speech" in ~ Rice college in Texas.

Preparation for Apollo came from NASA"s Mercury program, i m sorry ran indigenous 1959 come 1963 and also sent one-person crews right into orbit to check out if humans can survive and work in The was complied with by the agency"s Gemini program, i beg your pardon ran native 1962 to 1966 and included two-person missions that tested many maneuvers and also components critical for landing on the moon.

The Apollo program forced a monumental effort, employing roughly half a million civilization in the united States, follow to audioeditorfree.comFlight Insider. The program price a total of $28 billion over its lifetime, or roughly $283 exchange rate when readjusted for inflation, according to the Planetary Society.

All Apollo rockets launched from the Kennedy an are Center near Orlando, Florida. (Pictured right here is a Saturn V launched during an uncrewed mission, well-known as Apollo 4.) (Image credit: NASA)

NASA arisen several novel vehicles especially for Apollo, many famously the Saturn V rocket. One of the greatest launch vehicles ever before flown, the Saturn V was together tall together a 36-story building and also consisted of three stages.

Atop the rocket sat the Apollo command module, a three-person capsule that organized the astronauts travel to the moon and also back. The inside of the courage had around as much room together the internal of a car, do for relatively cramped traveling conditions during the around week-long lunar voyages.

Finally, there was the lunar module, which brought two astronauts under to the lunar surface and landed top top spindly legs. Once surface excursions were over and also astronauts had climbed ago inside, the lunar module"s top part fired the engine and also ascended to the command module for the go back to Earth.

Related: NASA"s 17 Apollo moon missions in pictures

The first Apollo tests took location using the Saturn i rocket, a smaller sized version of the Saturn V that was offered to test out the engines and necessary hardware because that the program. The very first astronauts were set to paris on Apollo 1, but during a start rehearsal a wiring spark created a fire the blazed transparent the command module, which caused the catastrophic deaths that the three-person crew.

The failure was a transforming point for the program, result in comprehensive redesigns come the command module. It was more than 18 months before NASA tried to send more humans into an are again. Throughout that time, the company launched 6 uncrewed missions to inspection the performance of the Saturn V rocket.

The an initial successful crewed launch during Apollo 7 significant the following milestone in the program’s history. Though astronauts stayed in planet orbit because that its duration, the mission validated the security of sending world to using the Saturn V rocket.

Apollo 8 to be the first mission to send astronauts all the means to the moon, though the crew did not land ~ above its surface, just circled it. Throughout the event, which emerged on Christmas eve in 1968, the crew take it turns analysis from the publication of Genesis and also snapped the iconic photograph of our planet well-known as "Earthrise," i beg your pardon is credited with helping accumulate the eco-friendly movement.

The culmination that Apollo was the Apollo 11 mission, as soon as the first astronauts set foot top top the moon. Astronauts Neil Armstrong and also Buzz Aldrin descended to the lunar surface on July 20, 1969, while Michael Collins flew the command module Columbia end it. Armstrong uttered his top words, "that"s one small step for man, one gigantic leap for mankind," as he stepped top top the moon. The astronauts spent 21 hours and also 36 minute on the surface before returning come the command module.

Related: Moon-landing hoax still resides on, 50 years after Apollo 11. However why?

Apollo 13 is remembered together the trip that was conserved from near disaster through difficult work and also clever design workarounds. Despite the crew never came down on the moon, their travails to be dramatized in the award-winning movie "Apollo 13" about their misadventure.

By the early on 1970s, the high price that the Apollo program and waning windy interest caused its cancellation. Chairman Richard Nixon and also legislators in Congress determined to redirect Apollo"s resources elsewhere, prefer the Vietnam War. Apollo 17 to be the final mission the the program, and also the first to incorporate a scientist, geologist Harrison "Jack" Smith, who assisted identify essential rock specimens to lug home.

NASA is at this time planning its Artemis program, i m sorry is plan to carry people — including female crew members — to the moon for the an initial time since the finish of Apollo. Artemis intends to have its an initial landing in 2024 and build towards a sustained person presence on the moon by 2028.

Apollo 11 astronaut Buzz Aldrin was standing on the lunar surface during the very first moon landing in 1969. (Image credit: Apollo 11/NASA)

Here"s a brief an overview of each Apollo mission:

Apollo 1 — Jan. 27, 1967. Astronauts Virgil "Gus" Grissom, Edward White and also Roger B. Chaffee had actually all to be veterans of NASA"s Mercury or Gemini programs. A disaster entailing the very oxygenated wait inside your capsule and a stray spark, in addition to the vessel"s hatch being difficult to open from the inside, resulted in the death of all three men.

Apollo 4 — Nov. 9, 1967. Uncrewed an initial launch that NASA"s huge Saturn V rocket.

Apollo 5 — Jan. 22, 1968. Uncrewed mission that lugged the lunar module to room for the an initial time.

Apollo 6 — April 4, 1968. Final uncrewed mission of the Apollo program. The launch was designed to test the capability of the Saturn V come inject astronauts into a lunar trajectory. Significant vibrations the the rocket throughout launch resulted in the mission come be just partially successful.

Apollo 7 — Oct. 11, 1968. Astronauts Walter M. Schirra, Donn Eisele and also R. Walter Cunningham were the very first Apollo crew to enter Rather than head towards the moon, the astronauts spent 11 days in planet orbit experimentation various contents of their command module.

Apollo 8 — Dec. 21, 1968. Astronauts candid Borman, James Lovell and also William Anders became the very first humans to leaving low-Earth orbit, heading top top a trajectory the took them approximately the moon and earlier to our planet. Their historic flight happened ~ above an accelerated schedule. NASA officials do a last-minute decision to head towards the moon after only a single crewed mission roughly the planet in stimulate to conveniently demonstrate technical superiority over the Soviet Russians.

The blue marble check out of earth was first captured by astronauts throughout NASA"s Apollo 8 mission top top Dec. 24, 1968. (Image credit: NASA)

Apollo 9 — march 3, 1969. Astronauts James McDivitt, David Scott and Russell "Rusty" Schweickart stayed in planet orbit throughout their 10-day mission, experimentation out measures to dock their command module through the lunar module that would be vital for landing top top the moon.

Apollo 10 — may 18, 1969. Astronauts cutting board Stafford, john Young and Eugene Cernan got exceptionally close to landing ~ above the moon. Their mission involved flying to our herbal satellite and also bringing the lunar module come within about 50,000 feet (15,000 meters) that the moon"s surface, a mission that served as a dress rehearsal for Apollo 11.

Apollo 11 — July 16, 1969. Astronauts Neil Armstrong, Edwin E. "Buzz" Aldrin and Michael Collins go what no people had ever done before: with the moon and also have two human being walk over its surface. Armstrong and Aldrin left historical boot-prints that still continue to be in the lunar regolith.

Apollo 12 — Nov. 14, 1969. Astronauts Charles "Pete" Conrad, Alan Bean and also Richard Gordon made it through two lightning strikes during liftoff and also reached a different spot on the moon 보다 Apollo 11, touching down in a place referred to as the ocean of Storms. Moonwalkers Conrad and also Bean checked out NASA"s Surveyor 3 probe, which had actually landed ~ above the moon 2 years prior.

Apollo 13 — April 11, 1970. Astronauts James Lovell, Fred Haise and John Swigert endured after one oxygen tank exploded 56 hrs into their flight to the moon, crippling the mission. The crew was required to scramble into the lunar module and use it as a lifeboat, circling the moon without landing and then returning safely to Earth. This was Lovell"s 2nd time about the moon, the first being top top Apollo 8.

The crew of Apollo 13 aboard the USS Iwo Jima after restore from the Command Module. (Image credit: NASA)

Apollo 14 — Jan. 31, 1971. Astronauts Alan Shepard, Edgar Mitchell and also Stuart Roosa are best remembered for having actually hit golf balls on the moon. Shepard to be the an initial American in but he and also his co-pilots collectively had several of the least flight experience of all the Apollo astronauts, leading them to be lovingly referred to as "the three rookies."

Apollo 15 — July 26, 1971. Astronauts David Scott, James Irwin and Alfred Worden were part of the mission that brought the lunar roving vehicle, frequently known together the moon buggy, because that the an initial time come the moon. Your mission emphasized geology work, and the crew was trained to identify different rocks and also formations the would help scientists on planet piece with each other the history of our planet and also its herbal satellite.

Apollo 16 — April 16, 1972. Astronauts man Young, Charles M. Duke and Thomas Mattingly landing at the Descartes highlands and also searched for volcanic rocks during their mission. Confounding scientists" expectations, they found couple of volcanic samples, indicating the the area had not been created through volcano action.

Apollo 17 — Dec. 7, 1972. Astronauts Eugene Cernan, Harrison Schmitt and also Ronald Evans became the final civilization yet to ever reach the moon. Their mission ongoing the emphasis on science, with the astronauts safety the many time ~ above the lunar surface and also picking up the biggest samples of any in the program.

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